The Use of Wastewater for Irrigation Purposes: Perceptions and Willingness to Pay for Treated Wastewater

International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science
© 2020 by SSRG - IJAES Journal
Volume 7 Issue 4
Year of Publication : 2020
Authors : Faiza Ambreen, Muhammad Khalid Bashir, Muhammad Ashfaq, Ghaffar Ali, Sarfraz Hassan, Maria Shabir
How to Cite?

Faiza Ambreen, Muhammad Khalid Bashir, Muhammad Ashfaq, Ghaffar Ali, Sarfraz Hassan, Maria Shabir, "The Use of Wastewater for Irrigation Purposes: Perceptions and Willingness to Pay for Treated Wastewater," SSRG International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science, vol. 7,  no. 4, pp. 9-22, 2020. Crossref,


Insufficient freshwater resources and surplus wastewater (industrial and sewage) have constrained farmers for ample practice of wastewater irrigation. Although wastewater provides necessary nutrients to crops, the accumulation of chemicals and heavy metals are harmful to human health, soil, and groundwater resources. The efficient wastewater treatment management can provide additional and alternative water resources; however, farmers’ perception and willingness to pay for this type of reclaimed water play a crucial role in its reuse. The objective of the study is to check the prevailing patterns of irrigation in peri-urban areas of Faisalabad district to identify the factors affecting the willingness of farmers to pay for treated wastewater and their perceptions to use it. Face to face interviews and group discussions were used to collect data with the help of a questionnaire with a sample size of a total of 200 farmers. The binary logistic regression model was used to evaluate the farmers’ willingness to pay for treated wastewater. Results revealed that 140 out of 200 farmers were willing to pay and to use treated wastewater as an alternative option for irrigation. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that willingness to pay was positively affected by age, education, income, area of cultivation, land ownership, farmers’ awareness about the benefits of treated wastewater, the health-risk and productivity perceptions. The study recommends that dissemination of information and the provision of intensive agricultural extension services can encourage farmers to use treated wastewater as an additional water source.


wastewater irrigation, treated wastewater, willingness to pay, farmers’ perceptions


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