Modelling of Soxhlet Extraction of Lemongrass Oil

International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research
© 2020 by SSRG - IJCER Journal
Volume 7 Issue 2
Year of Publication : 2020
Authors : Samson Onoriode Okpo, Ipeghan Jonathan Otaraku
: 10.14445/23945370/IJCER-V7I2P103
MLA Style:

Samson Onoriode Okpo, Ipeghan Jonathan Otaraku, "Modelling of Soxhlet Extraction of Lemongrass Oil" SSRG International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research 7.2 (2020): 24-29.

APA Style:

Samson Onoriode Okpo, Ipeghan Jonathan Otaraku,(2020). Modelling of Soxhlet Extraction of Lemongrass Oil. SSRG International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research 7(2), 24-29.


Soxhlet extraction of lemongrass oil using ethanol as a solvent was carried out, and regression modeling was done with Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS version 23. The results obtained from the extraction process were fitted into different regression models to select an appropriate model for the extraction process using their coefficients of regression (R2) and significance values (p-value) as the basis for selection. The effects of particle size, contact time, and solvent volume on oil yield were considered in the modeling. The proposed regression model for effect of particle size, contact time and solvent volume on yield are y = -0.246In(x) +1.4147, y = - 0.00002510x2+ 0.01548x- 0.6898 and y = -0.0000001714x2+ 0.000113x +1.600 respectively. The optimum yield on applying the proposed models was 1.586 for 0.5cm particle size, 1.696 for 300 minutes contact time, and 1.6179 for 300ml solvent volume. To maximize the lemongrass's oil yield using Soxhlet extraction, a particle size of 0.5cm, contact time of 300 minutes, and solvent volume of 300ml is recommended. Finally, the proposed model equations can be used satisfactorily to predict any value of yield for Soxhlet extraction of lemongrass essential oil within the defined experimental range of values.


[1] Amenaghawon, N. A., Okhueleigbe, K. E., Ogbeide, S. E. and Okieimen, C. O. (2014). “Modeling the Kinetics of Steam Distillation of Essential Oils from Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon Spp.)”. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 12(2), p. 107-115
[2] Amiya, K.J (2011). “Chemical Process Modelling and Computer Simulation”, Second Edition. PHI is learning private limited, 111 Patparaganj Industrial Estates. New Delhi. India.
[3] Carlson, L. H. C., Machado, R. A. F., Spricigo, C. B., Pereira, L. K. and Bolzan, A., (2001). “Extraction of lemongrass essential oil with dense carbon dioxide.” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 21, p. 33-39.
[4] Ceylan, H. (2007). “Control and Simulation Studies for a Multicomponent Batch Packed Distillation Column”, Turkey: Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University.
[5] Chantal, S., Prachakoli, S., and Ruangviriyachai, C. (2012). “Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass and lemongrass grown in Thailand”. Journal of AOAC International, 95: 763-772.
[6] Desai, M.A., Parikh, J., and De, A. K.(2014). “Modeling and optimization studies on extraction of lemongrass oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus(Steud.)
Wats”. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 92, p.793–803.
[7] Djouahri, A., Boudarene, L., Meklati, B.Y.(2013). “Effect of extraction method on chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oil from the leaves of Algerian Tetraclinisarticulata (Vahl) Masters”. International Journal of Industrial crops and products, 44.p.32-36,
[8] Edwards, J.R., and Parry, M.E. (1993). “On the use of polynomial regression equations as an alternative to difference scores in organizational research”. Academy of management journal, 36(6): p.1577-1613.
[9] Hesham, H.A., Abdurahman, H.N. and Rosli, M.Y.(2016). “Techniques for extraction of essential oils from plants: A review”. Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 10(16), p. 117-127.
[10] Joglekar, M. and May, A. T. (1987). “Product excellence through design of experiments, “Cereal Foods World, 32 p. 857– 868.
[11] Joy, P.P., Mathew, S., Skaria, B.P., Mathew, G., Joseph, A. and Sreevidya, P.P. (2006). “Lemongrass Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station”, Odakkali, Asamannoor, Kerala, India, p.1-32.
[12] Lee, C. L., and Wang, W. L. (1997). “Biological Statistics (Beijing, People’s Republic of China, Ed.)”. Science Press.
[13] Lee, W.C., Yusof, S., Hamid, N.S.A., and Baharin, B.S. (2006).” Optimizing conditions for enzymatic clarification of banana juice using response surface methodology (RSM)”. Journal of Food Engineering. 73, p.55-63.
[14] Middleton, M.R. (2010). Better Exponential Curve Fitting using Excel.
[15] Nguyen, D.B.T., Ta, H. D. and Nguyen, T.D. (2017). “Kinetics and modeling of oil extraction from vietnam lemongrass by steam distillation”. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology.55(5A), p. 58-65.
[16] Okpo, S.O and Otaraku, I.J. (2020). “GC-FID and FT-IR Characterization of Lemongrass Oil Extracted with Soxhlet Extraction Apparatus Using Ethanol as Solvent." IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), 10(5), pp. 33-38.
[17] Oyekunle, D. T., and Oyekunle, D. O. (2018). “Biodiesel production from yellow oleander seed oil via heterogeneous catalyst: performance evaluation of minitab response surface methodology and artificial neural network.” Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences, 9(8), p.2468–2477
[18] Reverchon, E. and Marco, I.D. (2006). “Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of natural matter”. Journal of supercritical fluids, vol. 38, p. 146-166.
[19] Sayyar, S., Zainal, A.Z., Yunus, R. And Muhammad, A.(2009). “Extraction of oil from jatropha Seeds optimization and kinetics”. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(7), p.1390-1395.
[20] Schantz, M. M. and Hawthorne, S.B. (1998). “Comparison of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in Environmental Matrix Standard Reference Materials”. Journal of Chromatography A, 816: p.213-220.
[21] Shah, G., Shri, R., Panchal, V., Sharma, N., Singh, B., and Mann, A., (2011). “Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass)”, J. Adv. Pharm. Technol. Res., 2 (1), p.3–8.
[22] Shah, M., Shrivastava, P. and Singh, N. (2014). “Microwave-assisted extraction of lemongrass essential oil: Study of the influence of extraction method and process parameters on extraction process”. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(11), p.385-389. Available online
[23] Sirisompong, W., Jirapakkul, W. and Klinkesorn, U. (2011). “Response surface optimization and characteristics of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum L.) kernel fat by hexane extraction”. LWT Food Science and Technology 44 (9), p.1946-1951.
[24] Stimson. J.A., Carmines. E.G. and Zeller, R.A.(1978). “Interpretation of Polynomial Regression”, Sociological methods and research, volume 6, p. 515-534.
[25] Suryawanshi, M.A., Mane, V.B. and Kumbhar, G.B. (2016). “Methodology to Extract Essential Oils from Lemongrass leaves: solvent extraction approach”. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 3 (8):1775-1780.
[26] Temitayo, O.D. (2017). “Optimization of Oil Extraction from Thevetia Peruviana (Yellow Oleander) Seeds: A Case Study of Two Statistical Models”. International Journal of Engineering and Modern Technology, 3(4), 2504–8856.
[27] Upreti, S. R. (2017). “Process Modelling and Simulation for Chemical Engineers:Theory and Practice”, Chichester, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
[28] Yolmeh,M, Habibi, N.M. and Farhoosh, R.(2014). “Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Natural Pigment from Annatto Seeds by Response Surface Methodology (RSM)”. Food Chem 155: 319–324
[29] Zaibunnisa , A.H., Norashikin, S., Mamot, S., and Osman, H. (2009). “An experimental design approach for the extraction of volatile compounds from turmeric leaves (Curcuma domestica) using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE)”. LWT, Food Science and Technology, 42: 233-238.
[30] Jack, I. R. and Nwachoko, N, "Constituents of the ethanolic extract of Bryophyllum Pinnatum leaves" SSRG International Journal of Applied Chemistry 3.1 (2016): 1-4.

Key Words:

Essential oil, Lemongrass, Modelling, Operating parameters, Soxhlet extraction