Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with Consumption of Vegetables Cultivated on Contaminated Soil in Gashua, Yobe State – Nigeria

International Journal of Pharmacy and Biomedical Engineering
© 2020 by SSRG - IJPBE Journal
Volume 7 Issue 1
Year of Publication : 2020
Authors : Salamatu A. Amshi, Abdulkadir B. Bababe, Muhammad Saquib, Aliyu Adamu
How to Cite?

Salamatu A. Amshi, Abdulkadir B. Bababe, Muhammad Saquib, Aliyu Adamu, "Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with Consumption of Vegetables Cultivated on Contaminated Soil in Gashua, Yobe State – Nigeria," SSRG International Journal of Pharmacy and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 7,  no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2020. Crossref,


This study aimed to use atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) to determine the levels of concentration of heavy metals: lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) uptake by two vegetables (onion and salad) cultivated in three contaminated areas along Gada River, Gashua. Samples were collected from different cultivation land, Mashangwari, Garden, Gada right and Gada left. The results showed that the average concentration of Cd is 0.1179 mg kg–1 and 0.1267 mg kg–1 , Cr is 0.8575 mg kg–1, and 0.8265 mg kg–1 , and Pb is 0.1771 mg kg–1 and 1.3314 mg kg–1 in onion and salad samples respectively. The average concentration of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) detected in onion and salad samples from the study area exceeded the acceptable limits of 0.2 mg kg–1 for Cd and 0.3 mg kg–1 for Pb for edible vegetable recommended by FAO/WHO. The average value of Cr concentration detected was below the permissible limit (2.3 mg kg– 1 ) recommended by FAO/WHO. Therefore, consumers of onion and salad cultivated in some areas in the Gashua community were likely to be liable to Cd and Pb toxicity. The research indicates that vegetables planted during the irrigation period are polluted by Cd and Pb. These heavy metals have health hazard risks and consumption of the vegetables might be a likely cause of Kidney disease.


Heavy, metals, contamination, kidney, vegetables


[1] O. P. Sobukola, O. M. Adeniran, A. A. Odedairo, and O. E. Kajihausa, “Heavy Metal Levels of Some Fruits and Leafy Vegetables from Selected Market in Lagos, Nigeria”, African Journal of Food Science, Volume 4, Number 2, page 389-393, 2010.
[2] M. Sultana, M. N. Mondol, A. A. Mahir, R. Sultana, S. F. Elahi, N. Afrose and A. S. Chamon, “Heavy metal concentration and health risk assessment in commonly sold vegetables in Dhaka city market”, Bangladesh Journal of Science and Industrial Research, Volume 54, Number 4, page 357-366, 2019.
[3] M. Bedassa, A. Abebaw, and T. Desalegn, “Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals in Onion Bulb and Onion Leaf (Allium cepa L.), in Selected Areas of Central Rift Valley of Oromia Region Ethiopia”, Journal of Horticulture, Volume 4, Number 4, page 217, 2017.
[4] P. S. Rao, T. Thomas, A. Hasan, and A. David, “Determination of Heavy Metals Contamination in Soil and Vegetable Samples from Jagdalpur, Chhattisgarh State, India” International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, Volume 6, Number 8, page 2909-2914, 2017.
[5] A. Gune, M. Alpaslan, A. Inal, “Plant growth and fertilizer”, Ankara Univ. agriculture Pub. no: 1539, Ankara, Turkey, 2004.
[6] S. Onder, S. Dursun, S. Gezgin, A. Demirbas, “Determination of Heavy Metal Pollution in Grass and Soil of City Centre Green Areas (Konya, Turkey)”, Letter to Editor, Polish J. of Environ. Stud., Volume 16, Number 1, page 145 – 154, 2007.
[7] G. Farid, N. S. Saifullah, A. Ahmad, A. Ghafoor, and M. Rehman, “Heavy Metals (Cd, Ni, and Pb) Contamination of Soils, Plants, and Waters in Madina Town of Faisalabad Metropolitan and Preparation of Gis Based Maps”, Advances in Crop Science and Technology, Volume 4, page 199, 2015.
[8] R. Islam, S. Kumar, J. Karmoker, S. Sorowar, A. Rahman, T. Sarkar, and N. Biswas, “Heavy Metals in Common Edible Vegetables of Industrial Area I Kushtia, Bangladesh”, A Health risk Study, Environ. Sci. Ind. J, Volume 13, Number 5, page 150.
[9] M. K. Türkdogan, F. Kilicel, K. Kara, I. Tuncer, I. Uygan, “Heavy metals in soil, vegetables and fruits in the endemic upper gastrointestinal cancer region of Turkey”, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 13, Number 3, page 175-179, 2003.
[10] L. Jarup, “Hazards of heavy metal contamination”, British Medical Bulletin, Volume 68, page 167–182, 2003
[11] M. Malan, F. Müller, L. Cyster, L. Raitt, and J. Aalbers, “Heavy metals in the irrigation water, soils and vegetables in the Philippi horticultural area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 187, page 4085, 2015.
[12] WHO (World Health organization) (1989), Tech. Rep, Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants, Technical report series Geneva, 33rd Report of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives, Geneva, Switzerland.
[13] L. A. Nwaogu, C. O. Ujowundu, C. I. Iheme, T. N. I. Ezejiofor and D. C. Belonwu, “Effect of Sublethal Concentration of Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Physicochemical Properties, Catalase and Dehydrogenase Activities”, Int. J. Biochem Res. Rev. Volume 4, Number 2, page 141–149, 2014.
[14] B. Hu, X. Jia, J. Hu, D. Xu, F. Xia and Y. Li, “Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risks in the SoilPlant-Human System in the Yangtze River Delta, China”, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 14, Number 9, page 1-8, 2017.
[15] W. Addis and A. Abebaw, “Determination of heavy metal concentration in soils used for cultivation of Allium sativum L. (garlic) in East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia”, Cogent Chemistry, Volume 3, Number, 1419422, 2017.
[16] T. L. Bambara, K. Kabore, M. Derra, M. Zoungrana, F. Zougmoré, and O. Cisse, “Assessment of heavy metals in irrigation water and vegetables in selected farms at Loumbila and Paspanga, Burkina Faso”, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, Volume 9, Issue 4 Ver. II, page 99-103, Apr. 2015.
[17] M. C. Lucchetti, “Cobalt-chromium alloys in dentistry: An evaluation of metal ion release”,; 2015.
[18] WHO. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd Ed. Health criteria and other supporting information. World Health Organization, Geneva. 1996; 2.
[19] G. Zhang, D. Chen, W. Zhao, H. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Wang, “A novel D2EHPA-based synergistic extraction system for the recovery of chromium (III)”, Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 302, page 233-238, 2016.
[20] H. Zohdi, M. Emami, H. Reza, Galvanic corrosion behavior of dental alloys. Environmental and Industrial Corrosion - Practical and Theoretical Aspects; 2012. DOI: 10.5772/52319.
[21] S. D. Flora, “Reduction of hexavalent chromium by fasted and fed human gastric fluid. I. Chemical reduction and mitigation of mutagenicity”,; 2016.
[22] S. Kalidhasan, S. Krishna, A. Kumar, V. Rajesh, N. Rajesh, “The journey traversed in the remediation of hexavalent chromium and the road ahead toward greener alternatives-A perspective”, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Volume 317, page 157-166, 2016.
[23] Chromium (Cr) Toxicity: What are the routes of exposure for chromium? | ATSDR - Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education - CSEM [Internet]; 2008. Available: At, (Cited 5 June 2016.
[24] T. Risco, B. Achmad, and E. I. Auerkari, “Effects of Chromium on Human Body”, Annual Research and Review in Biology, Volume 13, Number 2, page 1-8, 2017.
[25] O. D. Opaluwa, M. O. Aremu, L. O. Ogbo, K. A. Abiola, I. E. Odiba, M. M. Abubakar and N. O. Nweze, “Heavy metal concentrations in soils, plant leaves and crops are grown around dumpsites in Lafia Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria”, Advances in Applied Science Research, Volume 3, Number 2, page 780-784, 2012.
[26] WHO/FAO (2013), Tech. Rep, Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater and foodstuff, Report of the joint WHO/FAO Volume 2 no. 1, World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Geneva, Switzerland.