Exploring Thermal Comfort of Sports Shirts from the Price Difference Perspective

International Journal of Polymer and Textile Engineering
© 2018 by SSRG - IJPTE Journal
Volume 5 Issue 3
Year of Publication : 2018
Authors : Shuvo Kumar Kundu, Su Kyoung An
: 10.14445/23942592/IJPTE-V5I3P105
MLA Style:

Shuvo Kumar Kundu, Su Kyoung An, "Exploring Thermal Comfort of Sports Shirts from the Price Difference Perspective" SSRG International Journal of Polymer and Textile Engineering 5.3 (2018): 26-32.

APA Style:

Shuvo Kumar Kundu, Su Kyoung An, (2018). Exploring Thermal Comfort of Sports Shirts from the Price Difference Perspective. SSRG International Journal of Polymer and Textile Engineering 5(3), 26-32.


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between thermal comfort and price of athletic shirts. Three 100% polyester plain knitted sports shirts with three different prices were compared. Three hypotheses were developed to test the relationships between thermal comfort and price of the athletic shirt. The TEXTEST FX 3300 Lab Air IV was used to determine the air permeability of shirts based on (ASTM D737-04). The thermal manikin Newton was used for measuring thermal resistance and water vapor resistance of shirts based on (ASTM F1291-10) and (ASTM F2370-10) respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post Hoc analysis were used to determine the relationship between price and thermal resistance, water vapor resistance as well as air permeability. A significant correlation was found between price and thermal resistance (Rct) as well as air permeability. However, no significant difference was not found for water vapor resistance (Ret) at different price levels.


[1] L. Sharpe, “Vermont No. 1 in Frequent Exercise, Produce Consumption,” 2014. [Online]. Available: https://news.gallup.com/poll/167645/vermont-no-frequent-exercise-produce-consumption.aspx. 
[2] A. M. Yohannes, P. Doherty, C. Bundy, and A. Yalfani, “The long-term benefits of cardiac rehabilitation on depression, anxiety, physical activity and quality of life,” J. Clin. Nurs., 2010. 
[3] G. Cooney, K. Dwan, and G. Mead, “Exercise for depression,” JAMA - J. Am. Med. Assoc., 2014. 
[4] A. L. Schwartz, “Physical Activity,” Semin. Oncol. Nurs., 2008. 
[5] A. Ströhle, “Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders,” Journal of Neural Transmission. 2009. 
[6] D. E. R. Warburton, C. W. Nicol, and S. S. D. Bredin, “Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence,” CMAJ. 2006. 
[7] J. H. B. Stuart and M. Nanette, Psychology of physical activity: Determinants, well-being and interventions. 2007. 
[8] W. J. Chodzko-Zajko et al., “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2009. 
[9] C. J. Huang, H. E. Webb, M. C. Zourdos, and E. O. Acevedo, “Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity,” Frontiers in Physiology. 2013. 
[10] American College of Sports Medicine et al., “American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.,” Med. Sci. Sport. Exerc., 2009. 
[11] E. Onofrei, A. M. Rocha, and A. Catarino, “The influence of knitted fabrics‟ structure on the thermal and moisture management properties,” J. Eng. Fibres Fabr., 2011. 
[12] O. Troynikov and W. Wardiningsih, “Moisture management properties of wool/ polyester and wool/bamboo knitted fabrics for the sportswear base layer,” Text. Res. J., 2011. 
[13] Y. EPSTEIN and D. S. MORAN, “Thermal Comfort and the Heat Stress Indices,” Ind. Health, 2006. 
[14] C. P. Ho, J. Fan, E. Newton, and R. Au, “Improving thermal comfort in apparel,” in Improving Comfort in Clothing, 2011. 
[15] G. Song, Improving Comfort in Clothing. 2011. 
[16] C. Völker, S. Hoffmann, O. Kornadt, and E. Arens, “Heat and moisture transfer through clothing,” in IBPSA Building Simulation, 2009. 
[17] R. Shishoo, Textiles in sport. 2005. 
[18] A. Bivainyte, D. Mikučioniene, and P. Kerpauskas, “Investigation on thermal properties of double-layered weft knitted fabrics,” Medziagotyra, 2012. 
[19] T. H. Chen, W. P. Chen, and M. J. J. Wang, “The effect of air permeability and water vapor permeability of cleanroom clothing on physiological responses and wear comfort,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 2014. 
[20] H. Lee and S. An, “A Comparative Analysis of Thermal Comfort Properties for Nurse Scrub Jackets,” AATCC J. Res., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 35–39, 2018. 
[21] N. Oğlakcioğlu and A. Marmarali, “Thermal comfort properties of some knitted structures.,” Fibres Text. East. Eur., 2007. 
[22] D. R. Lichtenstein and S. Burton, “The Relationship Between Perceived and Objective Price-Quality,” J. Mark. Res., 1989. 
[23] F. Kar, J. Fan, W. Yu, and X. Wan, “Effects of thermal and moisture transport properties of T-shirts on wearer‟s comfort sensations,” Fibers Polym., 2007. 
[24] A. Marmaralı, H. Kadoglu, N. Oğlakcıoğlu, and P. Celik, “Thermal Comfort Properties of Some New Yarns Generation Knitted Fabrics,” in AUTEX 2009 World Textile Conference, 2009. 
[25] J. Fan and H. W. K. Tsang, “Effect of Clothing Thermal Properties on the Thermal Comfort,” Text. Res. J., vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 2008. 
[26] G. Supuren, N. Oglakcioglu, N. Ozdil, and A. Marmarali, “Moisture management and thermal absorptivity properties of double-face knitted fabrics,” Text. Res. J., 2011. 
[27] “Total revenue of the global sports apparel market from 2012 to 2024,” 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.statista.com/statistics/254489/total-revenue-of-the-global-sports-apparel-market/. 
[28] “Sales of the sportswear market in the United States from 2015 to 2020,” 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.statista.com/statistics/568016/retail-sales-of-the-us-athletic-market/. 
[29] R. L. Oliver, “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions,” J. Mark. Res., 1980. 
[30] C. Homburg, W. D. Hoyer, and N. Koschate, “Customers‟ reactions to price increases: Do customer satisfaction and perceived motive fairness matter?,” J. Acad. Mark. Sci., 2005. 
[31] E. W. Anderson and M. W. Sullivan, “The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction for Firms,” Mark. Sci., 1993. 
[32] R. N. Bolton and J. H. Drew, “A Multistage Model of Customers‟ Assessments of Service Quality and Value,” J. Consum. Res., 1991. 
[33] R. L. Oliver and J. E. Swan, “Equity and Disconfirmation Perceptions as Influences on Merchant and Product Satisfaction,” J. Consum. Res., 1989. 
[34] O. Hinz, E. Gerstmeier, O. Tafreschi, M. Enzmann, and M. Schneider, “Customer loyalty programs and privacy concerns,” Proc. 20th {{}B{}}led {{}E{}}lectronic {{}C{}}ommerce Conf., 2007. 
[35] D. J. Flint, C. P. Blocker, and P. J. Boutin, “Customer value anticipation, customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical examination,” Ind. Mark. Manag., 2011. 
[36] J. Donio‟, P. Massari, and G. Passiante, “Customer satisfaction and loyalty in a digital environment: An empirical test,” J. Consum. Mark., 2006. 
[37] A. T. Hsieh and W. T. Chang, “The effect of consumer participation on price sensitivity,” Journal of Consumer Affairs. 2004. 
[38] J. T. Bowen and S. L. Chen, “The relationship between customer loyalty and customer satisfaction,” Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag., 2001. 
[39] V. Kaura, C. S. D. Prasad, and S. Sharma, “Service quality, service convenience, price and fairness, customer loyalty, and the mediating role of customer satisfaction,” Mark. Intell. Plan., 2015. 
[40] J. J. Cronin and S. A. Taylor, “Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension,” J. Mark., 1992. 
[41] R. Hallowell, “The relationships of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profitability: an empirical study,” Int. J. Serv. Ind. Manag., 1996. 
[42] M. Chandrashekaran, K. Rotte, S. S. Tax, and R. Grewal, “Satisfaction Strength and Customer Loyalty,” J. Mark. Res., 2007. 
[43] R. Mosahab, O. Mahamad, and T. Ramayah, “SERVICE QUALITY, CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY: A TEST OF MEDIATION,” Int. Bus. Res., 2010. 
[44] E. W. Anderson, “Customer satisfaction and price tolerance,” Mark. Lett., 1996. 
[45] R. Veale and P. Quester, “Do consumer expectations match experience? Predicting the influence of price and country of origin on perceptions of product quality,” Int. Bus. Rev., 2009. 
[46] F. Völckner and J. Hofmann, “The price-perceived quality relationship: A meta-analytic review and assessment of its determinants,” Mark. Lett., 2007. 
[47] P. J. Boyle and E. S. Lathrop, “Are consumers‟ perceptions of price–quality relationships well calibrated?,” Int. J. Consum. Stud., 2009. 
[48] A. R. Rao, “The Quality of Price as a Quality Cue,” J. Mark. Res., 2005.

Key Words:


  Sport, Price, Customer Satisfaction, Athletic Shirt, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Resistance, Evaporative Resistance, Air Permeability, Polyester.