Influence of Precipitation and Temperature on Tree-Ring Width of Brutia Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in Tartous-Syria

International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science
© 2018 by SSRG - IJAES Journal
Volume 5 Issue 5
Year of Publication : 2018
Authors : Heba M. Salhab, Dr.Wael Ali, Dr.Laila Abboud
How to Cite?

Heba M. Salhab, Dr.Wael Ali, Dr.Laila Abboud, "Influence of Precipitation and Temperature on Tree-Ring Width of Brutia Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in Tartous-Syria ," SSRG International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science, vol. 5,  no. 5, pp. 22-31, 2018. Crossref,


Tree rings width are strongly influenced by environmental factors especially climatic ones, Dendroclimatology concerns with studying the response of tree rings to climatic conditions. In order to study the relationship between tree rings width of brutia pine and both of precipitation and temperature in three sites in Tartous, 10 dominant trees were selected in each site. Using increment drill two perpendicular samples from each tree at breast height were taken. The samples were treated, and well cross dated, then the rings width were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. The tree rings time series were standardized to avoid the influence of age and forest management. Response functions method was used to test the relationship between climate and tree ring-width. Results showed that, at low site Amreet, tree-ring width was more influenced by precipitation than temperature, especially in growing season and prior to it. At high site Kadmous, precipitation has significant effect between the end of spring and the beginning of summer (May and June), However, there was an obvious positive influence of April temperature (mean, max and min) on tree-ring width. At Tallah, tree-ring width did not significantly response to monthly precipitation, and showed negative influence by the mean and maximum temperature for July.


Dendroclimatology -Tree rings -Temperature -Precipitation – Brutia pine.


[1] Fontaine M, Aerts R, Özkan K, Mert A, Gülsoy S, Süel H, Waelkens M, Muys B (2007) Elevation and exposition rather than soil types determine communities and site suitability in Mediterranean mountain forests of southern Anatolia, Turkey. For Ecol Manage 247:18-25.
[2] Farjon A (2013) Pinus brutia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42347A2974345. 1.RLTS.T42347A2974345.en
[3] Olivar j, Bogino S , Spiecke H, Bravo F (2012) Climate Impact on Growth Dynamic and Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations in Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis) Trees of Different Crown Classes, Science Direct, J. Dendrochronologia, 30(1): 35–47.
[4] Nahal I (1984) Le pin brutia (Pinus brutiaTen. subsp. brutia) Première partie, For. Médit. 5:165–171.
[5] Abdo, H. G. (2018). Impacts of war in Syria on vegetation dynamics and erosion risks in Safita area, Tartous, Syria. Regional Environmental Change, 1-13.
[6] Cuny HE, Rathgeber CBK, Frank D, Fortin M, Fournier M (2014) Kinetics of tracheid development explain conifer tree-ring structure. New Phytologist 203: 1231–1241
[7] Vaganov EA, Hughes MK, Shashkin AV (2006) Growth Dynamics of Conifer Tree Rings: Images of Past and Future Environments. Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 358 pp.
[8] Bradley RS, (1985) Quaternary Palaeoclimatology: Methods of palaeoclimatic reconstruction. Unwin Hyman, London, 472 pp.
[9] Fritts, H.C, (1971). Dendroclimatology and Dendroecology. Quaternary Research, 1 (4), 419-449.
[10] Fritts HC (1976) Tree Rings and Climate. Academic Press, London: 567pp.
[11] Kozlowsky TT, Pallardy SG (1997) Growth control in woody plants. Academic Press, San Diego, p 641.
[12] Touchan R, Meko D M, Anchukaitis k J (2014b) Dendroclimatology in The Eastern Mediterranean, Tree-Ring Research, 70(3):S61–S68.
[13] Chalabi M N, Serre-Bachet F (1981) Analyse dendroclimatologique de deux stations syriennes de Quercus cerris ssp pseudocerris. Ecologia Mediteranea7:3–21.
[14] Munaut A V (1982) The Mediterranean area. In Climate from Tree Rings, edited by M. K. Hughes, M. P. Kelly, J. R. Pilcher, and V. C. La Marche; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 151– 154.
[15] Parsapajouh D, Bräker O U, Schär E (1986) Étude dendroclimatologique du bois de Taxus baccata du nord de l’Iran. SchwizerischeZeitschriftfürForstwesen137:853–868.
[16] Akkemik, Ü (2000) Dendroclimatology of umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Istanbul, Turkey. Tree-Ring Bulletin 56:17–23.
[17] Hughes MK, Kuniholm PI, Eischeid J, Garfin GM, Griggs C, Latini C (2001) Aegean tree-ring signature years explained. Tree-Ring Research 57(1):67–73.
[18] Touchan R, Garfinm g, Meko M D, Funkhouser G, Erkan N, Hughes KM, Wallin SB (2003) Preliminary Reconstructions Of Spring Precipitation In Southwestern Turkey From Tree-Ring Width, International Journal Of Climatology 23: 157–171
[19] Touchan R, Xoplaki E, Funkhouser G, Luterbacher J, Hughes MK, Erkan N, Akkemik U , Stephan J (2005) Reconstructions of spring/summer precipitation for the Eastern Mediterranean from tree ring widths and its connection to large-scale atmospheric circulation.Clim. Dynam. 25: 75–98.
[20] Köse N, Akkemik Ü, Nüzhet Dalfes H, Sinan Özeren M (2011) Tree-ring reconstructions of May–June precipitation for western Anatolia Quaternary Research 75: 438–450
[21] Sarris d, Christodoulakis D, Korner C (2007) Recent decline in precipitation and tree growth in the eastern Mediterranean, J. Glob Change Biology13(6) : 1187-1200.
[22] Griggs C, Pearson C, Manning SW, Lorentzen B (2013) A 250-year annual precipitation reconstruction and drought assessment for Cyprus from Pinus brutia Ten. tree-rings. International Journal of Climatology 34(8):2702–2714.
[23] Kienast F, Schweingruber FH, Br aker OU, Sch E (1987) Tree-ring studies on conifers along ecological gradients and the potential of single-year analyses. Can. J. For. Res. 17: 683–696.
[24] Chalabi M N, Martini G (1989) Etude dendroclimatologique de l’Abiescilicica (Ant. et Ky) de Syre. Research Journal of Aleppo University 12:57–89.
[25] Berger A L, Guiot J, Mathieu L, Munaut A V (1979) Tree -Rings and Climate in Morocco. Tree -Ring Bulletin 39: P64.
[26] Romagnoli M, Codipietro G (1996) Pointer years and growth in Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L) in Latium (central Italy). A dendroclimatic approach. Ann. For. Sci. 53: 671–684.
[27] Papadopoulos A, Tolika K, Pantera A, Maheras P (2009) Investigation of the annual variability of the Aleppo pine tree-ring widths: The relationships with the climatic conditions in the Attica basin. Glob. NEST J.11: 583–592.
[28] Kiaei M, Bakhshi R (2011) A dendrochronological study on Acer velutinum in northern Iran. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Iran 4(0974-6846): 1547-1550.
[29] Köse N, Guner H T (2012)The effect of temperature and precipitation on the intra-annual radial growth of Fagus orientalis Lipsky in Artvin, Turkey. Turk J Agric For.36 :501-509.
[30] Orvis KH, Grissino-Mayer HD (2002) Standardizing the reporting of abrasive papers used to surface tree-ring samples. Tree-Ring Res 58: 47-50.
[31] Swetnam TW (1985) Using dendrochronology to measure radial growth of defoliated trees. USDA Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service, Agriculture Hand Book.
[32] Stokes MA, Smiley TL (1996) An Introduction to Tree-ring Dating. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
[33] Briffa KR, Schweingruber FH, Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Shiyatov SG , Vaganov EA (1998) Reduced sensitivity of recent tree-growth to temperature at high northern latitudes. Nature 391: 678–682.
[34] Fritts HC, Swetnam TW (1989) Dendroecology: A tool for evaluating variations in past and present forest environments. Advances in Ecological Research 19: 111–188.
[35] Guiot J, Goeury C , (1996) PPPBase, a software for statistical analysis of paleoecological and paleoclimatological data. Dendrochronologia 14:295-300.
[36] Cook E, Briff K, Shiyatov S, Mazepa V (1990a) Tree-ring standardization and growth-trend estimation. In: Methods of Dendrochronology: Applications in the Environmental Sciences. (Eds. E Cook, LA Kairiukstis). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 104-122.
[37] Cook E (1985) A time series analysis approach to tree-ring standardization. PhD Thesis. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
[38] Cook E, Shiyatov S, Mazepa V (1990b) Estimation of the mean chronology. In: Methods of Dendrochronology: Applications in the Environmental Sciences. (Eds. E Cook, LA Kairiukstis). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 123-132.
[39] Filipe C, Cristina N, Helena F, Emilia G (2007) Climatic significance of tree-ring width and intra-annual density fluctuations in Pinus pinea from a dry Mediterranean area in Portugal.. Annals of Forest Science, Springer Verlag/EDP Sciences 64 (2): 229-238.
[40] Briffa K., Cook E. (1990) Methods of response function analysis. Chap.5, section 5.6, pp.240-248 in: Methods of Dendrochronology. Applications in the Environmental Sciences (Eds. E.R. Cook and L.A. Kairiukstis), Kluwer, Dordrecht.(R).
[41] Yamaguchi DK (1991) A simple method for cross-dating increment cores from living trees, Canadian Journal of forest research. 21(3): 414-416.
[42] Wimmer R, Strumia G, Holawe F (2000) Use of false rings in Austrian pine to reconstruct early growing season precipitation. Can. J. Forest Res. 30: 1691–1697.
[43] Touchan, R. and K. Hughes, M, (1998). Dendrochronology in Jordan, Journal of Arid Environments, 42 (4) : 291-303.
[44] Touchan, R., Anchukaitis K. J., Shishov V. V., Sivrikaya F., Attieh J., Ketmen M., Stephan J., Mitsopoulos I., Christou A., and Meko D. M., (2014a) Spatial patterns of Eastern Mediterranean climate influence on tree growth. The Holocene 24(4):381–392.
[45] Piraino S., Camiz S., Di Filippo A., Piovesan G., Spada F., (2012) A dendrochronological analysis of Pinus pinea L. on the Italian mid-Tyrrhenian coast, Springer link, Geochronometria, 40 (1) : 77-89.
[46] Nicault A., 1999 - Analyse de l’influence du climat sur les variations inter et intra annuelles de la croissance radiale du pin d' Alep (Pinus halepensis Miller) en Provence calcaire. Thèse de Doctorat, Université d 'Aix-Marseille III, Discipline Ecologie, Marseille, 256.