Study the Effect of Agar Extraction Time on its Yield and Physical Properties of Syrian Alga Pterocladia capillacea

International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science
© 2017 by SSRG - IJAES Journal
Volume 4 Issue 2
Year of Publication : 2017
Authors : Dr. Hamed Mayhoob, Dr. Assef Abbas, Ali Mahmod
How to Cite?

Dr. Hamed Mayhoob, Dr. Assef Abbas, Ali Mahmod, "Study the Effect of Agar Extraction Time on its Yield and Physical Properties of Syrian Alga Pterocladia capillacea," SSRG International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science, vol. 4,  no. 2, pp. 63-65, 2017. Crossref,


A study made about time effects of the native extraction on the yields and properties of the produced agar from (Pterocladia capillacea). Agar yields increases with the extraction time rise, where as the highest yields of agar 35.46% at time of 4 hours, and it get gelling temperature 31 °C, melting temperature 83 °C, and gel strength 436 g/cm2. Then , the yield and properties decreases with time increasing over that where as it rises at 8 hours to 17 %. gelling temperature 27 °C, melting temperature 70°C and gel strength 170 g/m 2.


Pterocladia capillacea, agar yields, gel strength, viscosity, Gelling and melting temperature


1- M. GLICKSMAN, "Food Hydrocolloids. ed. Martin Glicksman, CRC Press Inc. Boca Raton, Florida, vol. 2, 74–83, 1983
2- E. A. WASSEF, A. M. EL SAYED, K. M. KANDEEL, H. A. MANSOUR, E. M. SAKR, " Effect of Feeding Pterocladia and Ulva meals in diets for gilthead bream Sparus aurata. Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, 63 and Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Nutrition and Feeding in Fish, Rhodes(Greece) 2002; p.28.
3- L. M. SILVA, V. LIMA, M. L. HOLANDA, P. G. PINHEIRO, J. A. G. RODRIGUES, M. E. P. LIMA, N. M. B. BENEVIDES, "Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Lectin from Marine Red Alga Pterocladiella capillacea. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 33: 830-835, 2010.
4- A. BOTTALICO, C. I. D. FOGLIE, M. FANELLI, "Growth and reproductive phenology of Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyta: Gelidiales) from the southern Adriatic Sea." Botanica Marina. 51: 124-131, 2008.
5- C. ARAKI, "Some recent studies on the polysaccharides of agarophytes." Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp, 5, 3–19, 1966.
6- W. YAPHE, "Properties of Gracilaria agars". Hydrobiologia, 116/117, 171–186, 1984.
7- E. MARINHO-SORIANO, "Biomass and agar yield of Gracilaria bursapastoris in Mediterranean lagoon." Seaweed Res.Util, 21, 1–8, 1999.
8- A. CHIRAPART, and M. OHNO, "Seasonal variation in the physical properties of agar and biomass of Gracilaria sp. (chorda type) from Tosa Bay, southern Japan." Hydrobiologia, 260/261 , 541–547, 1993.
9- Y. FREILE-PELEGRIN, and D. ROBLEDO, "Influence of alkali treatment on agar from Gracilaria cornea from Yucat_an," Mexico. J. Appl. Phycol, 9, 533–539, 1997a.
10- R. VILLANUEVA, N. MONTANO, J. B. ROMERO, A. AlIGGANG, B. ENRIQUEZ, "Seasonal variations in the yield, gelling properties, and chemical composition of agars from Gracilaria eucheumoides and Gelidiella acerosa (Rhodophyta) from the Philippines". Bot. Mar, 42, 175–182, 1999.
11- J. B. ROMERO, R. D. VILLANUEVA, N. M. MONTAO, "Stability of agar in the seaweed Gracilaria eucheumatoides (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) during postharvest storage." Bioresource Technology, 99, 8151– 8155, 2008.
12- V. KUMAR, and R. FOTEDAR, "Agar extraction process for Gracilaria cliftonii (Withell, Millar, & Kraft, 1994). Carbohydrate Polymers, 78, 813–819, 2009.
13- A. M. M. S0USA, V. D. ALVES, S. MORAIS, C. DELERUE-MATOS, M. P. GONCALVES, "Agar extraction from integrated multitrophic aquacultured Gracilaria vermiculophylla: Evaluation of a microwaveassisted process using response surface methodology." Bioresource Technology, 101, 3258–3267, 2010.
14- R. ARMISEN, and F. GALATAS, "Agar. In G. O. Phillips & P. A. Williams (Eds.), Handbook of hydrocolloids, Cambridge." England. CRC Press, , pp. 21–40, 2009.
15- E. MARINHO-SORIANO, T. S. F. SILVA, and W. S. C. MOREIRA, "Seasonal variation in biomass and agar yield from Gracilaria the cervicornis and Hydropuntia cornea from Brazil." Bioresource Technology, 77, 115-120, 2001.
16- R. ARMISEN, and F. GALATAS. Production and properties and uses of agar. In: (D. S. McHugh, ed.) Production and Utilization of Products from Commercial Seaweeds FAO, pp. 1-57, 1987.
17- Y. FREILE-PELEGRIN, D. ROBLEDO. "Effects of season on the agar content and chemical characteristics of Gracilaria cornea from Yucata´n, Me´xico." Bot. Mar, 40, 285–290, 1997b.
18- J. PRAIBOON, CHTRAPART, AKAKABE, O. BHUMIBHAMOND, and T. KAJIWARAC, "Physical and Chemical Characterization of Agar Polysaccharides Extracted from the Thai and Japanese Species of Gracilaria. ScienceAsia 32 Supplement, 1, 11-17, 2006.
19- A. LEMUS, K. BIRD, D. KAPRAUN, F. KOEHN, "Agar yield, quality and standing crop biomass of Gelidium serrulatum, Gelidium floridanum and Pterocladia capillacea in Venezuela . Food Hydrocolloids, 5, 469-480. 1991.
20- E. OLIVEIRA, R. M. SAITO, J. F. SANTO NETO, M. C. GAROFALO, "Temporal and spatial variation in agar from a population of Pterocladia capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil. Hydrobiologia, 326/327, 501-504. 1996
21- E. C. OLIVEIRA, & F. A . S . BERCHEZ, Resource biology of Pterocladia capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) populations in Brazil . Hydrobiologia 260/261: 255-261, 1993.
22- G. SANTOS, "Quality of carrageenan and agar. In: Abbott IA, Foster MS, Eklund LF (eds), Pacific Seaweed Aquaculture. Calif. Sea Grant College Program, Institute of Marine Resources, Univ. Calif., La Jolla, Calif.: 123-129 & 200-201, 1980.
23- Y. FREILE-PELEGRINL, ROBLEDO, D. R ARMISN, G. GARCIA-REINA, "Seasonal changes in agar characteristics of two populations of Pterocladia capilacea in Gran Canaria, Spain." Journal of Applied Phycology 8:, 239-246, 239. 1996.
24- A. ABBAS, Contribution to Study of Agar Extraction from the Syrian Marine Alga Pterocladia capillacea. Tishreen University Journal for Research and Scientific Studies - Biological Sciences Series Vol. ( ) No. ( ) 2010
25- M. K. LAI , and C. LII. Effects of Extraction Conditions on Structural and Rheological Characteristics of Agar from Pterocladia capillacea and Carrageenan from Grateloupia filicina , Botanica Marina Vol. 41, pp. 223-234, 1998.
26- G. SANTOS, and M. S. DOTY, Agar from some Hawiian red algae. Aquatic Botanny, 16, 385 – 389. 1983.
27- A. V. RAO, and I. A. BEKHEET, Preparation of Agar- Agar from the Red Seaweed Pterocladia capillacea off the Coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Applied and environmental microbiology. Oct, p. 479-482, 1976.
28- G. L. COTE, and D. M. HANISAK, Production and properties of native agars from Gracilaria tikvahiae and other red algae. Bot. mar. 29:, 359-366, 1986.
29- J. CRAIGIE, Cell walls. In Cole KM, Sheath RG (eds), Biology of the Red Algae, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , 221–257. 1990
30- R. I. MONTOLALU, T. YURI.; S. MATSUKAWA, H. OGAWA, 'Effects of extraction parameters on gel properties of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol DOI 10.1007/s10811-007- 9284-2, , pp. 1-6. 2007
31- F. PEREIRA-PACHECO, D. ROBLEDO, RODRIGUEZ – L. CARAVAJAL, FREILE-PELEGRIN. "Optimization of native agar extraction from Hydropuntia cornea from Yucatan, Mexico. Bioresource Technology, 98, 1278–1284, 2007.
32- M. D. HOYLE, Agar studies in two Gracilaria species (G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva and G. coronopifolia J. Ag.) from Hawaii. II. Seasonal aspects. Bot. Mar, 21, 347–352, 1978.