Modifiable Risk Factors For Breast And Cervical Cancer And Their Association With Sample Characteristics

International Journal of Nursing and Health Science
© 2020 by SSRG - IJNHS Journal
Volume 6 Issue 1
Year of Publication : 2020
Authors : Dr. Shobha Gusain
How to Cite?

Dr. Shobha Gusain, "Modifiable Risk Factors For Breast And Cervical Cancer And Their Association With Sample Characteristics," SSRG International Journal of Nursing and Health Science, vol. 6,  no. 1, pp. 10-16, 2020. Crossref,


A. Background: By 2030, the global cancer burden is expected to nearly double, growing to 21.4 million cases and 13.2 million deaths. It may be the result of demographic changes (a growing and aging population) compounded by adopting unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors related to economic development.Objectives:1)To assess the modifiable risk factors for breast & cervical cancer 2)To identify the association of modifiable risk factors with selected sample characteristics. Methods: Using a purposive sampling technique, a pre-tested and structured interview schedule was administered to 426 women in gynae O.P.D. of Lok Nayak Hospital. Results: 86.85% of study subjects were in the modifiable risk factor score category, and most of them were in the illiterate and primary educated group. Age, education, employment, occupation, and income were significantly associated with modifiable risk factor scores. Conclusion: Moderate modifiable risk factors appeared to influence women's risk status for breast and cervical cancer in this study.


Modifiable risk factors, diet, exercise, stress, personal habits, environmental conditions.


[1] Luckman J. Saunder's manual of nursing care. USA: W.B. Saunders Co; (1997).
[2] Nettina S M. Lippincott manual of nursing practice.9th edition, USA: William and Wilkins; (2010).
[3] Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJL, Naghavi M. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2011; 378: 1461-84. Published Online: September 15, 2011. Available from DOI:
[4] Cancer fact sheet. Estimated cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence worldwide in 2012.Globocan(IACR), WHO.2012; Available from
[5] WHO. Cancer fact sheet. [Internet]. available from www.who.nt/factsheets/fs297/en
[6] American cancer society., Global cancer burden to nearly double in 2030. [Internet]. Available from:
[7] Dsouza N, Murthy N S., Aras R., Projection of cancer incident cases for India-till 2026. Asian Pac. J. Cancer, Prev. [Internet], 14(7) (2013). Available from: 264143909
[8] Monahan F D, Sands J K, Neighbors M, Marek J F, Green C J . Phipps medical surgical nursing –health and illness perspective. 8th Edition. India: Elsevier; (2009).
[9] Agarwal G, Pradeep P V, Aggarwal V et al., Spectrum of breast cancer in Asian women. World J Surg. May; 31(5) (2007)1031-1040.
[10] Park S, Bae J, Nam B H, Yoo KY. Aetiology of cancer in Asia.Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9 (2008) 371-380.
[11] Dinshaw KA, Shastri SS, Patil SS., Cancer control program in India: Challenges for the new millennium. Health Administrator ,17(1) 10-13.
[12] Tsu VD, Jeronmo J, Anderson B O., Why the time is right to tackle breast and cervical cancer in low-resource settings. Bull. World Health Organ.2013;91:683-690. Available from doi: 10.2471/ BLT.12.116020.
[13] Juneja A, Sehgal A, Mitra A B, Pandey A. A survey on risk factors associated with cervical cancer.Indian J Cancer. 40(1) (2003) 15-21.
[14] Spector D, Mishel IM, Skinner C S, Deroo L A, Vanriper M, Sandler D P., Breast cancer risk perception and lifestyle behaviors among white and black women with a family history of the disease. Cancer Nurs, 32(4) (2009) 299-308. Doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e31819deab0
[15] Donaldson MS. A review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutr J., 3(19) (2004). Doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-3-19. available from /PMC526387/
[16] Murphy N, Norat T, Ferrari P, Jenab M, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Skeie G, et al., Dietary fiber intake and risks of cancers of the colon and rectum in the prospective European investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). PLoS ONE. 7(6) (2012) e39361. Doi: 10.1371/journal. Pone.0039361
[17] Centre for science and environment. Carcinogen in your daily bread? Times of India; 24 (2016) 1-5
[18] Greger M., Why deep-fried foods may cause cancer. Medical nutrition blog. [Internet] 2015 July 21; available from /2015/07/21/
[19] American cancer society .Acryl amide and cancer risk.[internet] Available from cause /other carcinogen/at home/ acryl amide
[20] Kamath R, Mahajan KS, Ashok L, Sanal T S. A study of breast cancer among patients attending the tertiary care hospital in Udupi district. Indian J Community Med (online) 38(2) (2013) 95-99. Available from: 2013/38 /2/95/112440
[21] Leanne D, Cassileth B R, Gubili J., The role of physical activity in cancer prevention, treatment, recovery, and survivorship. June 15.Available from survivorship, (2013).
[22] Steindorf, K., The role of physical activity in primary cancer prevention. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 10(1) (2013) 33-36 doi:10.1007/s11556-012-0115-3
[23] Holick M F. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Am J clin nutr., 80(6) (2004) 16785-16885. Available from
[24] Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr S B, Grant W B, Giovannucci E L, Lipkin M, et. al. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: a
pooled analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol., 103(3-5) (2007) 708-711. Available from www. science
[25] Lemone P, Burke K. Medical-surgical nursing - Critical thinking in client care. 4th edition.India: Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd; (2008).
[26] Tiwari A, Kishore J, Tiwari A., Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in India's tertiary care hospital. Indian J Cancer [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 May 25]; 48:477-82. Available from: 477/ 92261
[27] Hussein E S, Muret P, Berard M, Makki S, Humbert P., Assessment of principal parabens used in cosmetics after their passage through the human epidermis and dermis layers. Exp. Dermatol, 16(10) (2007) 830-6.
[28] Goodman A., The social ecology of cervical cancer: The challenges to pap smear screening. Int J Clin Med, 4 (2013) 16-20 Published Online December 2013 ( /ijcm) 10.4236/ijcm.2013.412A1004
[29] Mathur M R, Singh A, Dhillon P K, Dey S, Sullivan R, Jain K K et al., Strategies for cancer prevention in India - catching the low hanging fruits, Journal of cancer policy. 2 (2014) 105-106. Available from
[30] Reynolds P, Hurley S, Goldberg D E, Culver H A, Bernstein L, Deapen D et al., Active smoking, passive household smoking, and breast cancer: evidence from the California teachers study. J Natl Cancer Inst , 96(1) (2004) 29-37. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djh002
[31] Key J, Hodgson S, Omar R Z. Meta-analysis of alcohol and breast cancer studies with consideration of the methodological issues. Cancer Causes Control, 17(6) (2006) 759. Available from http://link. article/10.1007/ s10552-006-0011-0
[32] Thakur A, Gupta B, Gupta A, Chauhan R. Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: A case-control study. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 May 24]; 59 (2015) 45-8. Available from: text. asp? 2015/59/1/45/152862
[33] Singh S, Badaya S. Factors Influencing uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in India: A hospital-based pilot study. J Community Med Health Educ, 2(157) (2012). doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000157 available from
[34] Lam J U H, Rebolj M, Dugue P A, Bonde J, Chelpin M V E, Lynge E. Condom use to prevent human papillomavirus infections and cervical neoplasia: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. JMed Screen, 21(1): (2014) 38–50. DOI: 10.1177/0969141314522454 msc.sag. Available from http://msc. content/21/1/38.full
[35] Boffetta P, Nyberg F. Contribution of environmental factors to cancer risk. Br Med Bull. 68(1) 71-94. Available from http://bmb. content/68/1/71.full
[36] Yu ITS, Chiu Y I, Au JSK, Wong T, Tang JL.Dose-response relationship between cooking fumes exposures and lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. Cancer Res. (2006). May;66(9): 4961-4967 DOI PubMed 16651454
[37] Mathur M R, Singh A, Dhillon P K, Dey S, Sullivan R, Jain K K et al. Strategies for cancer prevention in India - catching the low hanging fruits, Journal of cancer policy, 2 (2014) 105-106. Available from
[38] Modibbo F I, Dareng E, Bamsisaye P, Abba E J, Ayodele A, Oyeneyin L, et al., Qualitative study of barriers to cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. BMJ Open, 6 (2016) e008533. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015- 008533.
[39] World Health Organisation. Cancer control- knowledge into action, WHO guide for effective programs, 2 (2007).