Research on the Temporal Variation of Fricatives in Sundanese
|International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering|
|© 2017 by SSRG - IJEEE Journal|
|Volume 4 Issue 9|
|Year of Publication : 2017|
|Authors : Maolin Wang|
Maolin Wang, "Research on the Temporal Variation of Fricatives in Sundanese" SSRG International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 4.9 (2017): 1-5
Maolin Wang,(2017). Research on the Temporal Variation of Fricatives in Sundanese. SSRG International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 4(9), 1-5.
In this study, the effect of position, syllable type and word length on the temporal variation of fricatives in Sundanese is analyzed. It is found that due to the effect of final lengthening, the durations of fricatives at word final position is longer than at word medial position. There is also the effect of initial strengthening, so the duration of the fricative at word initial position is longer than at word medial position. As CVC syllable is phonologically heavier than CV syllable, fricative duration in the CVC syllable is longer than in the CV syllable. Because of the effect of polysyllabic shortening, fricative duration in the two syllable word is longer than those in the three and four syllable words.
 C. Clopper and R. Smiljanic, ―Regional variation in temporal organization in American English. Journal of Phonetics, vol. 49, pp. 1-15, 2015.
 T. Crystal and A. House, ― Segmental duration in connected speech signals: current results, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol 83, pp. 1553-1573, 1988.
 D. O‘Shaughnessy, ―A study of French vowel and consonant duration, Journal of Phonetics, vol 9, pp. 385-406, 1981.
 J. Waals, ―An Experimental View of the Dutch Syllable, The Netherlands Graduate school of Linguistics, LOT 18, 1999.
 A. Braham, An Acoustic study of Temporal Organization In Arabic, Doctoral Dissertation (written in Arabic), University of Manouba, Tunis, 1997.
 S. Ghazali, R. Hamdi, and M. Barkat, ―Speech rhythm variation In Arabic dialects. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Speech Prosody, Aix-en-Provence, pp 331-334, 2002.
 D. Klatt, ―Linguistic uses of segmental duration in English: acoustic and perceptual evidence, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol 59, pp. 1208-1221, 1976.
 E. Jacewicz, R. Fox and J. Salmons, ―Vowel duration in three American English dialects. American Speech, vol. 82, pp. 367-385, 2007.
 G. Peterson and I. Lehiste, ―Duration of syllable nuclei in English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 32, pp. 693-703, 1960.
 S. R. Baum and S. E. Blumstein, ―Preliminary observations on the use of duration as a cue to syllable-initial fricative consonant voicing in English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 82, pp. 1073-1077, 1987.
 C. Rejili and S. Ghazali, ―Consonant Cluster Duration in Modern Standard Arabic. 15th ICPhS, Barcelona, 2003.
 Y. F. Holt, E. Jacewicz and R. A. ―Temporal variation in African American English: The Distinctive Use of Vowel Duration. Journal of Phonetics & Audiology, vol. 2, pp.121-128, 2016.
 D. J. Van Tasell, D. G. Greenfield, J. J. Logemann, and D. A. Nelson, ―Temporal cues for consonant recognition: Training, talker generalization, and use in evaluation of cochlear implants, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 1247-1257, 1992.
 G. Jacques, ―A panchronic study of aspirated fricatives, with new evidence from Pumi, Lingua, Vol. 121, Issue 9, pp. 1518-1538, 2011.
 E. Nirgianaki, ―Acoustic characteristics of Greek fricatives. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 135, No. 5, pp. 2964-2976, 2014.
 P. Boersma, ―Praat, a system doing phonetics by computer, Glot International, 5:9/10, pp. 341–345, 2001.
 J. P. van Santen, ―Contextual effects on vowel duration, Speech Communication, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 513–546, 1992.
 L. White and A. E. Turk, ―English words on the procrustean bed: Polysyllabic shortening reconsidered, Journal of Phonetics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 459–471, 2010.
Fricative, duration, syllable.