The Developmental Patterns of Injera Baking Stoves: Review on the Efficiency, and Energy Consumption in Ethiopia

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering
© 2020 by SSRG - IJME Journal
Volume 7 Issue 1
Year of Publication : 2020
Authors : Mulugeta Tadesse
How to Cite?

Mulugeta Tadesse, "The Developmental Patterns of Injera Baking Stoves: Review on the Efficiency, and Energy Consumption in Ethiopia," SSRG International Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 7,  no. 1, pp. 7-16, 2020. Crossref,


Injera will continue to be the staple food for Ethiopians and Eritreans and some parts of east Africa in years to come. To efficiently bake, Injera using various types of stoves, research, and development work for Injera baking have been conducted so far and is critical. The use of energy sources is dominantly biomass is used for Injera baking followed by electricity yet. Electricity is mainly used in urban dwellers of the country which is a limited one. Alternative energy sources such as solar thermal and biogas can be used for baking Injera alternatively.
There are different types of Injera baking stoves design in Ethiopia using biomass energy such as open fire three-stone stove, Mirt stove (includes improved one with high chimney, stand types), Burayou Injera baking stove Sodo, Awuramba, Tehesh indicating developmental patterns of stove based on the aim to reduce specific fuel consumption as well as efficiency by reducing energy losses during baking. Thus, it is determined that the average specific fuel consumption of three-stone open fire was 929 g/kg of Injera, Mirt stove is 535g/kg of Injera, Gonziye is 617 g/kg of Injera, Awuramba is 573 g/kg of Injera while Sodo is 900 g/kg of Injera. The other Injera baking stoves were developed for baking Injera using solar thermal energy and biogas sources are designed to attain the average required surface temperature of Injera baking pan or Mitad. It is found that the average surface temperature of the concentric type solar thermal Injera baking stove is 148 oC, parabolic type solar Injera baking stove is 200 oC, the electric stove is 225 oC using 3.75 KW electricity, WASS electrical is 220 oC consuming 1.4 KW electricity and biogas 210 oC.
Further investigation is needed to continue the developmental patterns of the Injera baking system by improving the efficiency of the stove by reducing energy losses there has needed that the baking pan or Mitad be improved.


Baking, Energy, Fuel consumption, Injera, stove, Temperature


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