BER Analysis of STBC ALAMOUTI’s Code for MIMO System

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering
© 2015 by SSRG - IJECE Journal
Volume 2 Issue 7
Year of Publication : 2015
Authors : Monika Pathania and Vinay Bhatia
How to Cite?

Monika Pathania and Vinay Bhatia, "BER Analysis of STBC ALAMOUTI’s Code for MIMO System," SSRG International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, vol. 2,  no. 7, pp. 1-6, 2015. Crossref,


In this paper we are studying about the different transmit diversity techniques and different algorithms used for MRC technique in MIMO system to enhance diversity gain. Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, which uses many antennas at the transmitter and receiver ends of a wireless communication system. MIMO systems are adopted increasingly in communication systems for the potential gains in capacity they realize when using many antennas. To transmit diversity we use space time block coding scheme that will yields the similar diversity advantage as maximal ratio combining. In space time block coding we use Alamouti’s code. The Alamouti’s scheme is historically the first SpaceTime Block Code (STBC) to give full transmit diversity for systems with two transmit antennas. It is worthwhile to advert that delay diversity schemes can also meet a full diversity, but they introduce interference between symbols and complex detectors are required at the receiver


Alamouti’s Code, Diversity Techniques, MIMO Systems, Space Time Block Coding.


[1]G. J. Foschini and M. J. Gans,”On limit of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas,” Wireless PersonalCommun., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 311-335, Mar. 1998.
[2]S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. vol. 16, pp. 1451-1458, Oct. 1998.
[3]V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank, “Space-time block codes from orthogonal designs,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 45, pp. 1456-1467, July 1999.
[4]L. Zheng and D. N. C. Tse, “Diversity and multiplexing: A fundamental tradeoff in multiple-antenna channels,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 49, pp. 1456-1467, July 1999.
[5]T. K. Y. Lo," Maximum ratio transmission," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 10, Oct. 1999.
[6]I. E. Telatar “Capacity of multi-antenna Gaussian channels,” Europ.Trans. Telecommun. vol. 10, pp. 585-595, Nov. /Dec. 1999.
[7]V. Tarokh and H. Jafarkhani, “A differential detection scheme for transmit diversity,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. vol. 18, no. 7, pp.1169-1174, July 2000.
[8]P. Fan “Multiple-symbol detection for transmit diversity with differential encoding scheme,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 47, no. 1, Feb. 2001.
[9]P. Fan, Z. Cao, X. Xia," Improved weighting vector selection method in maximum ratio transmission over flat Rayleigh fading channels," ICSP'02 Proceedings.
[10]R. W. Heath Jr. and A. J. Paulraj, “Linear dispersion codes for MIMO systems based on frame theory,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 50, pp. 2429-2441, Oct. 2002
[11]IEEE 802.15.3c Working Group Homepage, available at
[12]J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 
[13]E. G. Larsson and P. Stocia, Space-Time Block Coding for Wireless Communications. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.
[14]A Paulraj, R. Nabar, and D Gore, Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.
[15]D. J. Love, R. W. Heath, Jr., and T. Strohmer, “Grassmannian beam-forming for multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 49, no. 10, Oct. 2003.
[16]A. J. Grant “Performance analysis of transmit beam-forming “IEEE trans. Commun. vol. 53, no. 4, Apr. 2005.
[17]IEEE Std. 802.16e-2005 and IEEE 802.16-2004/Cor1-2005, “Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems,” IEEE-SA Standards Board, Tech. Rep., 2006.
[18]G. B. Giannakis, Z. Liu, X. Ma, and S. Zhou, Space-Time Coding for Broadband Wireless Communications. New York: Wiley, 2006.
[19]Z. Shen, R. Chen, J. G. Andrews, R. W. Heath Jr., and B. L. Evans, “Low complexity user selection algorithms for multiuser MIMO systems with block diagonalization,” IEEE trans. Signal Processing, vol. 54, no.9,pp. 3658-3663, Sep. 2006.
[20]D. J. Love, R. W. Heath Jr., V. K. N. Lau, D. Gesbert, B. D. Rao, and M. Andrews, “An overview of limited feedback in wireless communication systems,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. vol. 26, no. 8, Oct. 2008.
[21]S. Jin, M. R. McKay, K. K. Wong, and X. Gao,”Transmit beam-forming in Rayleigh product MIMO channels: capacity and performance analysis,” IEEE trans. Signal Processing, vol. 56, no.10, Oct. 2008.
[22]H. Lee, S. Park, and I. Lee, “Transmit beam-forming method based on maximum-norm combining for MIMO systems,” IEEE trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 40, Apr. 2009.
[23]Chun-Ying Ma, Meng-Lin Ku and Chia-Chi Huang, “Selective Maximum Ratio Transmission Techniques for MIMO Wireless Communications” IEEE trans. Wireless Commun. , Vol. 2, Issue 3 , October 2011.
[24]Suvarna P. Jadhav and Vaibhav S. Hendrre, “Performance of maximum ratio combining(MRC) MIMO system for Rayleigh fading channel” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, Vol. 3, Issue 2, February 2013.