Frequency Variations of Low Inertia Grid by MPPT Controller & EHHO Algorithm: A Synthetic Inertia Approach

International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
© 2022 by SSRG - IJEEE Journal
Volume 9 Issue 8
Year of Publication : 2022
Authors : N. Nandakumar, V.A. Tibbie Pon Symon
How to Cite?

N. Nandakumar, V.A. Tibbie Pon Symon, "Frequency Variations of Low Inertia Grid by MPPT Controller & EHHO Algorithm: A Synthetic Inertia Approach," SSRG International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 9,  no. 8, pp. 17-27, 2022. Crossref,


The distributed and unpredictable character of renewable energy sources is creating significant provocation for the working of the power system. Particularly when the entry of inverter-based frameworks is considerable, the integrity of the framework may be at risk. The answer to supporting the future expansion of dispersed frameworks is seen as a characteristic of capacity and the lawful strategy of regulators. To maintain the framework's unshakable quality at the highest possible level, control approaches should be designed to provide the framework with the necessary assistance and be suited for keeping the variation of recurrence inside cutoff points. The main issues include the frequency stability of present systems, minimizing delay by adding power after failure scenarios, and a lack of understanding of the distinction between inertia and rapid frequency response. This research employed the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and advanced Harris Hawk optimization (EHHO) methods for power and frequency control in low inertia systems to increase frequency stability. Effective results are obtained from the experimental comparison of the proposed model with the existing model, like perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm.


Grid System, Harris Hawk’s Optimization, Renewable Energy Source, Synthetic Inertia, Maximum Power Point Tracking.


[1] T. Kerdphol, F.S. Rahman, and Y. Mitani, “Virtual Inertia Control Application to Enhance Frequency Stability of Interconnected Power Systems with High Renewable Energy Penetration,” Energies., vol.11, pp. 981, 2018.
[2] V. Pagola, R. Peña, J. Segundo, A. Ospino, “Rapid Prototyping of a Hybrid Pv-Wind Generation System Implemented in a Real-Time Digital Simulation Platform and Arduino,” Electroncis., vol.8, pp.102, 2019.
[3] D. Chen, Y. Xu, A.Q. Huang, “Integration of Dc Microgrids as Virtual Synchronous Machines Into the Ac Grid,” Ieee Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.64, pp.7455–7466, 2017.
[4] T. Kerdphol, F. S. Rahman, M. Watanabe, and Y. Mitani, “Robust Virtual Inertia Control of a Low Inertia Microgrid Considering Frequency Measurement Effects,” Ieee Access., vol.7, pp. 57550-57560, 2019.
[5] W. J. Farmer, and A.J. Rix, “Optimising Power System Frequency Stability Using Virtual Inertia From Inverter-Based Renewable Energy Generation,” Iet Renewable Power Generation., vol.14, no.15, pp.2820-2829, 2020.
[6] K. Y. Yap, C. R. Sarimuthu, and J. M. Y. Lim, “Grid Integration of Solar Photovoltaic System Using Machine Learning-Based Virtual Inertia Synthetization in Synchronverter,” Ieee Access., vol.8, pp.49961-49976, 2020.
[7] J. Zhao, X. Lyu, Y. Fu, X. Hu, & F. Li, “Coordinated Microgrid Frequency Regulation Based on Dfig Variable Coefficient Using Virtual Inertia and Primary Frequency Control,” Ieee Transactions on Energy Conversion., vol.31, no.3, 833-845, 2016.
[8] J. Liu, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, “Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics Between Virtual Synchronous Generator and Droop Control in Inverter-Based Distributed Generators,” Ieee Transactions on Power Electronics., vol.31, no.5, pp. 3600-3611. 2015.
[9] Ch Venkata Ramesh, and A Manjunatha. "the Adequate Exploitation of Grid-Connected Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Unceasingly," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol.70, no.5, May. 2022, pp. 120-130. Crossref, Https://Doi.Org/10.14445/22315381/Ijett-V70i5p215
[10] D. Chen, Y, Xu, and A. Q, “Huang, Integration of Dc Microgrids as Virtual Synchronous Machines Into the Ac Grid,” Ieee Transactions on Industrial Electronics., vol.64, no.9, pp. 7455-7466, 20171.
[11] H. Bevrani, B. François, and T. Ise, “Microgrid Dynamics and Control,” John Wiley & Sons., 2017.
[12] Vijayalakshmi R, Pratheeba C, Sathyasree K, Ravichandran V , "Challenges, Issues and Solution for Hybrid Solar Pv and Wind Power Generation with Off-Grid Integration," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , vol.68, no.3, pp.18-21, 2020.
[13] Vijaya Bhaskar K, Ramesh S, Chandrasekar P  "Evolutionary Based Optimal Power Flow Solution for Load Congestion Using Prng," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol.69, no.8, pp.225-236, 2021.
[14] Hossam Ali, Gaber Magdy, Binbin Li, G. Shabib, Adel A. Elbaset, Dianguo Xu and Yasunorimitani, “A New Frequency Control Strategy in An Islanded Microgrid Using Virtual Inertia Control-Based Coefficient Diagram Method”, Ieee Access, vol.7, pp. 16979-16990, 2019.
[15] Ahmadreza Abazari, Masoudbabaei, S.M. Muyeenand Innocent Kamwa, “Learning Adaptive Fuzzy Drop of Pv Contribution of Frequency Excursion of Hybrid Micro-Grid During Parameters Uncertainties,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems., vol.123, pp.1-12, 2020.
[16] Ravindra Panchariya, Dr. Poonam Syal "An Improved Current Control Charging Scheme Using Neuro-Fuzzy and Fopid Based Mppt System for Ev Charging,”  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , vol.69, no.10, pp.251-257, 2021.
[17] Malar, A. J. G., Kumar, C. A., & Saravanan, A. G, “ Iot-Based Sustainable Wind Green Energy for Smart Cities Using Fuzzy Logic Based Fractional Order Darwinian Particle Swarm Optimization,” Measurement, vol.166, pp.108208, 2020.
[18] X. Huang, D. Chang, C. Ling, and T. Q. Zheng, “Research on Single-Phase Pwm Converter with Reverse Conducting Igbt Based on Loss Threshold Desaturation Control,” Energies, vol.10, no.11, pp.1845, 2017.
[19] A. Rai, B. Awasthi, S. Singh, and C. Dwivedi, “A Review of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic System,” Int. J. Eng. Res., vol.5, pp. 539–545, 2016.
[20] Ahmad Hamdan Ariffin, Zeittey Karmilla Kaman  "Review on Consumers’ Privacy and Economic Value Acceptance in Smart Grid Implementation" International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (2020):16-20. 
[21] Malar, J. G., & Kumar, C. A, “Implementation of Mppt Techniques for Wind Energy Conversion System,”  Internal Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews, vol.5, no.3, 2018.
[22] H. Allouache1, A. Zegaoui, M. Boutoubat, A. A. Bokhtache1, F. Z. Kessaissia1, J.P. Charles, Et Al, “Distributed Photovoltaic Architecture Powering A Dc Bus: Impact of Duty Cycle and Load Variations on the Efficiency of the Generator,” in Aip Conference (Beirut), 2018.
[23] Appathurai, A., Carol, J. J., Raja, C., Kumar, S. N., Daniel, A. V., Malar, A. J. G., ... & Krishnamoorthy, S, “ A Study on Ecg Signal Characterization and Practical Implementation of Some Ecg Characterization Techniques,” Measurement, vol.147, pp.106384, 2019.
[24] Hossain, M., “Energy Management of Community Microgrids Using Particle Swarm Optimisation (Doctoral Dissertation, Unsw Sydney),” 2020. 
[25] Sivasankari, B., and Ahilan, A. Smart Energy Harvesting for Intelligent Railway Condition Monitoring System,” Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol.19, no.2, pp. 7-7, 2019.
[26] Sotirios I. Nanou, G. Apostolos, Papakonstantinou, and Stavros A. Papathanassiou, “A Generic Model of Two-Stage Grid-Connected Pv Systems with Primary Frequency Response and Inertia Emulation,” Electric Power Systems Research., vol.127, pp. 186-196, 2015.
[27] M.A. Hannan, M.S.H. Lipu, P.J. Ker, R.A. Begum, V.G. Agelidis, and F. Blaabjerg, “Power Electronics Contribution to Renewable Energy Conversion Addressing Emission Reduction: Applications, Issues, and Recommendations,” Appl. Energy, vol.251, pp.113404, 2019.
[28] Kah Yung Yap, R. Charles Sarimuthu and Joanne Mun-Yee Lim, “Grid Integration of Solar Photovoltaic System Using Machine Learning-Based Virtual Inertia Synthetization in Synchronverter”, Ieee Access., vol.8, pp. 49961-49976, 2020.
[29] Sivasankari, B., Ahilan, A., Jothin, R., & Malar, A. J. G,  “Reliable N Sleep Shuffled Phase Damping Design for Ground Bouncing Noise Mitigation,”  Microelectronics Reliability, vol.88, pp.1316-1321, 2018.