The Role of Age as a Motivating Factor in Iraqi Immigrants‟ English Learning in Australia
|International Journal of Humanities and Social Science|
|© 2019 by SSRG - IJHSS Journal|
|Volume 6 Issue 6|
|Year of Publication : 2019|
|Authors : Dr.Hassan Abdilah|
How to Cite?
Dr.Hassan Abdilah, "The Role of Age as a Motivating Factor in Iraqi Immigrants‟ English Learning in Australia," SSRG International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 107-113, 2019. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/23942703/IJHSS-V6I6P115
Iraqi families continue to migrate to Australia in significant numbers each year. These families need to learn the language of their new home. This is not an easy thing to do, even if they do have some understanding of English from their studies back home. In learning their new language there are many factors at play. It is important to understand these factors which are influencing their English learning, and age is one of them.This qualitative case study examines the role of age in English learning motivation within Iraqi immigrant families in Australia. The study was conducted with twelve members of three newly arrived Iraqi immigrant families who had been in Australia for less than three years. The participant group comprised young children, teenagers and adults.Semi-structured interviews involving a questionnaire were used to gather numeric data to generate the findings of this study.
The findings show that the parents and their children’s English learning motivation is not the same.The children were more motivated towards English learning than their parents. They also received more support in their learning compared to the adult learners. Another important finding is the positive correlation between the children’s motivation to master English and both their time in Australia and the growth of their social networks
English, Learning, Motivation, Iraqi, Immigrants, English, Learning
 Abdilah, H. & Chowdhury, R. (2013). Gender and Motivation: a case study of Iraqi immigrants in Melbourne. International Journal of Arts & Science, 6(1), 231-239.
 Appel R. 1979. 'The acquisition of Dutch by Turkish and Moroccan children in two different school models'. Unpublished research report, Institute for Developmental Psychology, Utrecht.
 Bao, D. Abdilah, H & Chowdhury, R. (2012). EFL learners moving to an ESL context: Motivating and demotivating factors in English language learning among Iraqis. The New English Teacher, 6 (1), 125-144
 Bialystok, E. Hakura, K. (1999). Confounded Age: Linguistic and Cognitive Factors in Age Differences for Second Language Acquisition, in Birdsong, D. Second
 Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Inc. Publisher, London.
 Bradshaw, J. (2009). Second Language Acquisition: Unit Book/Study Guide. 2nd Ed. Victoria: Monash University Press
 Casimiro, S., Hancock, P., & Northcote, J. (2007). Isolation and insecurity: Resettlement issues among Muslim refugee women in Perth, western
Australia.Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1), 55-69.
 Chiswick, R., Lee, L., & Miller, W. (2005a). Family matters: The role of the family in immigrants‟ destination language acquisition. Journal of Population Economics, 18 (4), 631-647.
 Chiswick, R., Lee, L., & Miller, W. (2005). Parents and children talk: English language proficiency within immigrant families. Review of Economics of the Household, 3(3), 243-268.
 Christensen, G. and P. Stanat (2007), “Language Policies and Practices for Helping Immigrants and Second- Generation Students Succeed”, The Transatlantic Taskforce on Immigration and Integration, Migration Policy Institute (MPI) and Bertelsmann Stiftung.
 Cummins, J. (1981). Age on arrival and immigrant second language learning in Canada: A reassessment. Applied linguistics, 2(2), 132-149.
 De Courcy, M. C. (2007). Multilingualism, literacy and the acquisition of English as an additional language among Iraqi refugees in regional Victoria.University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 2, pp. 1-31.
 Ekstrand, H. 1977. 'Social and individual frame factors in L2 learning: comparative aspects'. In Skutnabb-Kangas T. (Ed.) Papers from the first Nordic conference on bilingualism. Helsingfors: Universities.
 Fathman, A. 1975. 'The relationship between age and second language productive ability'.Language Learning, 28, 245-253.
 Gardner, R, C. (2004b). Attitude/Motivation Test Battery: International AMTB Research Project. Retrieved from: http://publish.uwo.ca/~gardner/docs/englishamtb.pdf
 Gardner, R.C. (1985). Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The Role of Attitudes and Motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
 Genesee, F. 1979. 'A comparison of early and late immersion'. Unpublished manuscript, McGill University
 Hakuta, K and Bialystok, E. (2003). Critical Evidence: A Test of the Critical Period Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition. Psychological Science, 14 (1), 31-38.
 Long , M. ( 2007 ). Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum .
 Long, M. (1993). Problems in SLA. Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Inc. Publisher, USA.
 Long, M., Doughty, C. J. (2003). SLA and cognitive science. In C. J. Doughty &M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 866-869). Maiden, MA: Blackwell
 Mansouri, F. & Wood, S. 2008, Identity, education and belonging: Arab and Muslim Youth in Contemporary Australia, Melbourne University Press.
 Masgoret, A., & Gardner, R. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A metaanalysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53(1), 123–163
 Rida, A. Milton, M. (2001).Why migrant Muslim women aren‟t accessing English language classes. Prospect, 16 (1), 53-62.
 Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and Toukomaa, P. 1976. Teaching migrant children's mother tongue and learning the language of the host country in the context of the socio cultural situation of the migrant family. Helsinki: The Finnish National Commission for UNESCO
 Snow, C., Hoefngel, M. 1978. The critical period for language acquision: Evidence from second language Learning. Child Development, 49, 1114-1128
 Walburg, K. and Pinzur S. 1978. 'English acquisition as a diminishing function of experience rather than age'. TESOL Quarterly, 12, 427-437.
 Whitaker, E. 2010. Language Acquisition of the Children of Immigrants and the Role of Non-Profit Organizations. Retrieved from: