Relationship Model of Perceived Task Autonomy, Burnout and Performance

International Journal of Humanities and Social Science
© 2020 by SSRG - IJHSS Journal
Volume 7 Issue 5
Year of Publication : 2020
Authors : Dorothea Wahyu Ariani
How to Cite?

Dorothea Wahyu Ariani, "Relationship Model of Perceived Task Autonomy, Burnout and Performance," SSRG International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 7,  no. 5, pp. 120-127, 2020. Crossref,


Autonomy is a job characteristic variable which is the most powerful influence on various psychological factors at work. Conservation resource theory states that burnout occurs when valuable resources no longer exist. Burnout affects motivation and performance. This study aims to investigate the relationship between perceived task autonomy as an independent variable with burnout, work effort and work quality as dependent variables. Students at private universities in Indonesia, especially in Yogyakarta who have collectivistic cultures were selected as samples of this study. Using 628 students who had been at least in the second year, the results of this study found that the perceived task autonomy was significant positively related to students' work effort and significant negatively related to burnout. Burnout has a significant negative effect on students' work effort that can increase students' work quality. Model testing using structural equation modeling (SEM) showed the existence of perceived task autonomy effected students' work effort and burnout. Students' work quality as a performance variable was directly influenced by students; work effort. Further discussion is discussed in detail in this article.


perceived task autonomy, burnout, work effort, work quality


[1] Ahuja, M. K., Chudoba, K. M., Kacmar, C. J., McKnight, H., & George, J. F. (2007). “IT road warrior: Balancing work-family conflict, job autonomy, and work overload to mitigate turnover intentions”. MIS Quarterly, 31(1), 1-17.
[2] Aube, C. Rousseau, V., & Marin, E. M. (2007). “Perceived organizational support and organizational commitment: The moderating effect of locus of control and work autonomy”. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(5), 479-495.
[3] Bakker, A. B. & Demerouti, E. (2007). “The job demands-resources model: State of the art“. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309-328.
[4] Bakker, A. B. & Demerouti, E. (2008). “Towards a model of work engagement“. Career Development International, 13(3), 209-223.
[5] Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Euwema, M. C. (2005). “Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout“. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(2), 170-180.
[6] Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2003). “Dual processes at work in a call centre: An application of job demands-resources model”. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12(4), 393-417.
[7] Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). “Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance”. Human Resource Management, 43(1), 83-104.
[8] Boys, C. M., Bakker, A. B., Pignata, S., Winefield, A. H., Gillespie, N., & Stough, L. (2011). “A longitudinal test of the job demands-resources model among Australian university academics”. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 60(1),112-140.
[9] Breso, E., Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). “In search of the “Third Dimension” of burnout: Efficacy or inefficacy”. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(3), 460-478.
[10] Bussing, A. & Glaser, J. (2000). “Four-stage process model of the core factors of burnout: The role of work stressors and work-related resources”. Work & Stress, 14(4), 329-346.
[11] Byrne, B. M. (2010). “Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming”, 2nd edition. New York: Routledge, Francis &Taylor Group.
[12] Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). “The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 160-169.
[13] Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2000). “The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior”. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
[14] Dysvik, A. & Kuvaas, B. (2011). “Intrinsic motivation as a moderator on the relationship between perceived job autonomy and work performance”. European Journal of Work and Organizational Performance, 20(3), 367-387.
[15] Farh, J. L. & Scott, W.E. (1983). “The experimental effects of “autonomy” on performance and self-reports of satisfaction”. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 31(2), 203-222.
[16] Fernet, C., Lavigne, G. L., Vallerand, R. J., & Austin, S. (2014). “Fired up with passion: Investigating how job autonomy and passion predict burnout at career start in teacher”. Work & Stress, 28(3), 270-288.
[17] Foster, J., Higgins, E.T., & Idson, L. C. (1998). “Approach and avoidance strength during goal attainment: Regulatory focus and the “goal loom larger” effect”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1115-1131.
[18] Gan, Y. & Shang, J. (2007). “Coping flexibility and locus of control as predictors of burnout among Chinese College students”. Social Behavior and Personality, 35, 1087-1098.
[19] Gavrilyuk, O. A., Loginova, I. O., & Buzovkina, N. Y. (2013). “Relations of perceived autonomy and burnout syndrome in university teachers”. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 3(3), 52-62.
[20] Golden, J., Piedmont, R. L., Ciarrochi, J. W., & Rodgerson, T.. (2004). “Spirituality and burnout: An incremental validity study”. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32(2), 115-125.
[21] Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. A. (2008). Behavior in Organizations, 9th edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
[22] Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. (1976). “Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory”. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279.
[23] Hair, J. E., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). “Multivariate Data Analysis”. 6th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc.
[24] Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). “Burnout and work engagement among teachers”. Journal of School Psychology, 43(6), 495-513.
[25] Hemingway, M. A. & Smith, C. S. (1999). “Organizational climate nd occupational stressors as predictors of withdrawal behaviors and unjuries in nurses”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72(3), 285-299.
[26] Hobfoll, S. E., Dunahoo, C. A., & Monnie, J. (1995). “Convation of resources and traumatic stress in traumatic stress: From theory to practice”. Edited by John R. Freedy and Steven E. Hobfoll. New York: Plenum Press.
[27] Humphrey, S. E., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). “Integrating motivationonal, social and contextual work design feature: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extention of the work design literature”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1332-1356. [28] Iyengar, S. S. & Lepper, M. R. (1999). “Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 349-366.
[29] Kahn, R. L. & Byosiere, P. (1992). “Stress in organizations”. In M.D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (Eds.). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 3: 571-650. Palo Alto CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
[30] Kalyani, R., Panchanatha, N., & Parimala, R. (2009). “Stress and strain: Faculty Performance”. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, 6(2), 37-45.
[31] Keijsers, G. J., Schaufeli, W. B., Le Blanc, P. M., Zwerts, C., & Miranda, D. R. (1995). “Performance and burnout in intensive care units, Work & Stress,” 9(4), 513-527.
[32] Kiggundu, M. N. (1983). “Task interdependence and job design: Test of a theory.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 31(2), 145-172.
[33] Kim, H. & Stoner, M. (2008). “Burnout and turnover intention among social workers: Effects of role stress, job autonomy and social support”. Adminiatrative in Social Work, 32(3), 5-25.
[34] Langford, C. W. & Moye, N. A. (2004). “Effects of task autonomy on performance: An extended model considering motivational, informational, and structural mechanism.” Journal of Aplied Psychology, 89(6), 934-945.
[35] Leach, D. J., Wall, T. D., Rogelberg, S. G., & Jackson, P. R. (2005). “Team autonomy, performance, and member job strain: Uncovering the teamwork KSA link.” Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(1), 1-24.
[36] Lee, R.T. & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). “A meta-analytic examination of the correltes of the three dimensions of job burnout”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(2), 123-133.
[37] Lu, L. & Gilmour, R. (2007). “Developing a new measure of independent and independent views of the self.” Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 249-257.
[38] Madathil, R., Heck, N. C., & Schuldberg, D. (2014). “Burnout in psychiatric nursing: Examining the interplay of autonomy, leadership style and depressive symptoms”. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 28(3), 160-166.
[39] Markus, H. R. & Kitayama, S. (1991). “Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.” Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.
[40] Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). “Job burnout”. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 397-422.
[41] Maslach, E. & Jackson, S. E. (1981). ”The measurement of experienced burnout.” Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2(2), 99-113.
[42] Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). “Safety at work: A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 71-94.
[43] Park, R. & Searcy, D. (2012). “Job autonomy as a predictor of mental well-being: The moderating role of quality-competitive environment”. Journal of Business Psychology, 27, 305-316.
[44] Parker, S. K. (2003). “Longitudinal of lean production on employee outcomes and the mediating role of work characteristics”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 620-634.
[45] Parker, S. K. 1998. “Enhancing role breadth self-efficacy: The roles of job enrichment and other organizational interventions”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 835-853.
[46] Pearson, L. C. & Moomaw, W. (2006). “Continuing validation of the teacher autonomy scale”. Journal of Educational Reserach, 100(1), 44-51.
[47] Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). “Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.
[48] Schaufeli, W. B. & Bakker, A. B. (2004). “Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sampling study”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293-315.
[49] Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). “How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(7), 893-917.
[50] Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. (2002). “The measurement of burnout and engagement: A confirmatory factor analytic approach”. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71–92.
[51] Sheldon, K. M. & Elliot, A. J. (1999). “Goal striving, need-satisfaction, and longitudinal well being: The self-concordance model”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 482-497.
[52] Shih, S. S. (2015). “An investigation into academic burnout among Taiwanese adolescents from the self-determination ntheory perspective”. Social Psychological Education, 18, 201-219.
[53] Shin, H., Puig, A., Lee, J. H., & Lee, S. M. (2011). “Culture validation of Maslach Burnout Inventory for Korean students”. Asia Pacific Educational Review, 12(4), 637-639.
[54] Shirom, A., Nirel, N., & Vinokur, A. D. (2006). “Overload, autonomy, and burnout as predictors of physicians”. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(4), 328-342.
[55] Skaalvik, E. & Skaalvik, S. (2014). “Teacher self efficacy and perceived autonomy: Relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion”. Psychological Reports: Employment Psychology & Marketing, 114(1), 68-77.
[56] Skaalvik, E. M. & Skaalvik, S. (2009). “Does school context matter? Relations with teacher burnout and job satisfaction”. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 518-524.
[57] Skaalvik, E. M. & Skaalvik, S. (2010). “Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A studt of relations.” Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 1059-1069.
[58] Spector, P. E. (1986). “Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work”. Human Relations, 39(11), 1005-1016.
[59] Takahasi, A. M. & Takahasi, S. (2010). “Determinants of job-related stress of academic economists in Japan”. Japanese Economy, 37(2), 120-127.
[60] Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). “Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-in group relationships.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(2), 323-338.
[61] Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkieste, M., De Witte, H., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2010). “Capturing autonomy, competence, and relatedness at work: Construction and initial validation of the work-related basic need satisfaction scale”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(4), 981-1002.
[62] Van der Ploeg, E., Dorresteijn, S. M., & Kleber, R. J. (2003). “Critical incidents and chronic stressors at work: Their impact on forensic doctors”. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8(2), 157-166.
[63] Van Prooijen, J. W. (2009), “Procedural justice as autonomy regulation”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(6), 1166-1180.
[64] Van Yperen, N. W. & Hagedoorn, M. (2003). “Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support”. Academy of Management Journal, 46(3), 339-348.
[65] Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2007). “Redrawing the boundaries of OCB? An empirical examination of compulsory extra-role behavior in the workplace”. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(3), 377-405.
[66] Wall, T. D., Jackson, P. R., Mullarkey, S., & Parker, S. K. (1996). “The demands-control model of job strain: A more specific test”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69, 153-166.
[67] Wang, W. & Netemeyer, R. G. (2002). “The effects of job autonomy, customer demandingness, and trait competitiveness on salesperson learning and self-efficacy”. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 30(3), 217-228.
[68] Wilson, R. A., Perry, S. J., Witt, L. A., & Griffeth, R. W. (2015). “The exhausted short-timer: Leveraging autonomy to engage in production deviance”. Human Relations, 68(11), 1693-1711.
[69] Wright, T. A. & Cropanzano, R. (1998). “Emotional exhaustion as a predictor of job performance and voluntary turnover”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 486-493.
[70] Wu, C. H., Luksyte, A., & Parker, S. K. (2015). “Overqualification and subjective well-being at work: The moderating role of job autonomy and culture”. Social Indicators Research, 121, 917-937.
[71] Yener, M. & Coskun, O. (2013). Using job resources and job demands in predicting burnout. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 99, 869-876.
[72] Youndt, M. A., Snell, S. A., Dean Jr, J. W., & Lepak, D. P. (1996). “Human resource management, manufacturing strategy and firm performance”. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 836-866.
[73] Zhang, Y., Gan, Y., & Cham, H. (2007). “Perfectionism, academic burnout and engagement among Chinese College students: A structural equation modeling analysis.” Personality and Individual Differences, 43(6), 1529-1540.
[74] Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2010). “Business Research Methods”, 8th edition. United States: South-Western Cengage Learning.