Deep Analysis of Historical Essence of the Crusades from Historical Materialism
|International Journal of Humanities and Social Science|
|© 2022 by SSRG - IJHSS Journal|
|Volume 9 Issue 3|
|Year of Publication : 2022|
|Authors : Hongde Xiao , Trieu Thi My An|
How to Cite?
Hongde Xiao , Trieu Thi My An, "Deep Analysis of Historical Essence of the Crusades from Historical Materialism," SSRG International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1-4, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/23942703/IJHSS-V9I3P101
The crusades are great historical events in the western historical process. There is different cognition of the historical essence of the crusades. To utilize Marxism historical materialism, i.e., historical cause-effect analysis and quantitative-qualitative analysis, historical materials concerning the first four crusades are collected, read, and verified, which are analyzed and explained from three aspects, i.e., reason, process, and influence to recognize historical essence of the crusades fully. The crusades caused by complicated historical factors had represented the campaign under certain historical conditions. No matter how to recognize the crusades' historical essence, its significance is religious. Piety, passion, and significance cannot be devalued from the contemporary horizon. At present, military conflicts, terrorism, humanitarian disaster, etc., global crises rise after another fall, and dark clouds of Populism hang heavily over Europe under civil conflicts between the East and the West. Studying the crusades has some good references for dealing with these global crises and Populism.
The crusades, Historical essence, Reason and Effect analysis, Historical quantitative and Qualitative analysis.
 Adrian J. Boas, “Archaeological Sources for the History of Palestine: The Frankish Period: a Unique Medieval Society Emerges,” Near Eastern Archaeology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 138-173, 1998. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2307/3210688
 Bozeman B. Adda, “Civilizations under Stress: Reflections on Cultural Borrowing and Survival,” The Virginia Quarterly Review, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 1975. Crossref, http://www.jstor.org/stable/26435583
 Alfred J. Andrea, “Pope Innocent III as Crusader and Canonist: His Relations with the Greeks of Constantinople, 1198-1216,” Church History, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 133–134, 1970.
 B. Hamilton, and B.Z. Kedar “Miles of Plancy and the Fief of Beirut, the Horns of Hattin,” Ashgate and Yad Izhak Ben Zvip, pp. 136- 146, 1992.
 B. Hamilton, “The Impact of Crusader Jerusalem on Western Christendom,” The Catholic Historical Review,” vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 695- 713, 1994.
 B. Dean, “The Exploration of a Crusader's Fortress (Montfort) in Palestine,” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 5-46, 1927.
 C. C. Wu, “The Issues on the Study of the Crusaders,” Journal of Liaoning Normal University, vol. 2, pp. 81–84, 1989.
 Marx, and Engles “Anthology, Central Compilation and Translation Bureau,” Beijing: People’s Publishing House, pp. 920-921, 2021.
 Eva R. Hoffman, “Christian-Islamic Encounters on Thirteenth-Century Ayyubid Metalwork: Local Culture, Authenticity, and Memory,” Gesta, vol. 43. pp. 129-142. 2004. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2307/25067100
 Forey, and Jonathan Riley-Smith, “The Oxford Illustrated History of Crusade,” The Military Orders, pp. 184-216, 1997.
 J. F. Michaud, “The Crusades,” Beijing Times Chinese Press, pp. 3-78, 2018.
 J. David, “The Encounter of Two Societies: Western Conquerors and Byzantines in the Peloponnesus after the Fourth Crusade,” The American Historical Review, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 873-906, 1973. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2307/1858345
 J. David, “Foreigners and the Urban Economy in Thessalonike Ca, 1150-Ca, 1450,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, vol. 57, pp. 85-132, 2003. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2307/1291877
 J. Folda, et al., “Crusader Frescoes at Crac Des Chevaliers and Marqab Castle,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, vol. 36, pp. 177-210, 1982. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2307/1291467
 J. Folda, “The Figural Arts in Crusader Syria and Palestine, 1187-1291: Some New Realities,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, vol. 58, pp. 315-331, 2004. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2307/3591390
 L.X. Zhao, “Social Changes of Western Europe and the Course of the Crusade,” Fudan Journal, vol. 4, pp. 80-85, 2002.
 M. Barber, “Western Attitudes to Frankish Greece in the Thirteenth Century,” Mediterranean Historical Review, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 111- 128, 1989. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1080/09518968908569562
 Paul E. Chevedden, “The Islamic View and the Christian View of the Crusades: A New Synthesis,” History, vol. 93, no. 310, pp. 181- 200, 2008.
 P. M. Holt, “The Crusader States, and Their Neighbours, 1098-1291,” England: Pearson Education, pp. 70-76, 2004.
 P. Edbury, “East and West in the Crusader States: Context-Contacts-Confrontations, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta,” Peeters, xiv-220, vol.19, 1999.
 R. Ellenblum, and M. Ballard, “Three Generations of Frankish Castle-Building in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem,” Autour de la Premiere Croisade, Paris: Sorbonne, pp. 213-276, 1996.
 S. D. Goitein, “Tyre-Tripoli-'Arqa: Geniza Documents from the Beginning of the Crusader Period,” The Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 69-88, 1975. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2307/1453907
 S. Heidemann, “Financing the Tribute to the Kingdom of Jerusalem: An Urban Tax in Damascus,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 117-142, 2007. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X07000043
 T. S. Asbridge, “The Significance and Causes of the Battle of the Field of Blood,” Journal of Medieval History, vol. 23, pp. 301-316, 1997. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4181(97)00015-8
 T. S. Asbridge, “The Crusader Community at Antioch: The Impact of Interaction with Byzantium and Islam,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, vol. 9, pp. 305-325, 1999. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2307/3679407
 Y. Friedman, “Peacemaking: Perceptions and Practices in the Medieval Latin East,” The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories,” Routledge, pp. 229-234, 2011.