Work Stress and Demographic Factors as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Police Officers in Makurdi Metropolis

International Journal of Humanities and Social Science
© 2017 by SSRG - IJHSS Journal
Volume 4 Issue 5
Year of Publication : 2017
Authors : Shide Sunday and S. Okhakhume
How to Cite?

Shide Sunday and S. Okhakhume, "Work Stress and Demographic Factors as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Police Officers in Makurdi Metropolis," SSRG International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 4,  no. 5, pp. 31-38, 2017. Crossref,


This study investigated work stress and demographic factors as predictors of psychological well-being among police Officers in Makurdi metropolis. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design, where three hundred and forty six (346) police Officers consisting of 202 (58.7%) males and 143 (41.3%) females were used for the study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 64 years with the Mean of 411.61 (SD=11.226). Workplace Stress Scale (WSS) and Ryff‟s Psychological Well-being Scale (RPWS) were used for data collection. Statistical analysis involved the use of Multiple regression. Findings from the hypotheses indicated that, Work stress significantly influenced psychological well-being among police Officers in Makurdi metropolis. And the result further showed that, there was no significant independent and joint influence of demographic variables on psychological well-being among police Officers in Makurdi metropolis. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, Police Officers should be enlightened on how to manage work stress. It was also recommended that government should evolve policies that are aimed at reducing work stress among police Officers. Also, nongovernmental organizations with caring mind for the police Officers should help reduce work stress, so as to enhance better policing by the Officers. Finally, more researches should be encouraged on the subject matter for further identification of long term solutions to the problems affecting psychological well-being of police Officers in Makurdi metropolis in particular, and Nigeria at large.


  work stress, demographic factors, psychological well-being, police Officers and metropolis.


[1] Abraham, M. (2012). Psychological Work Environment, Organizational Justice and Work-family Conflict as Predictors of Malaysian Police Officers Psychological Well-being. Australia: Victoria University Press.
[2] Adegoke, T. G. (2014). Effect of Occupational Stress on Psychological Well-being of Police   Employees in Ibadan Metropolis. Ethopia:  An International Journal of Multidisciplinary  8 (1), 302 – 320.
[3] Akinsola, H. A. (2005). Research Methods in Medical and Nursing Practice. Ibadan: Collage Press Publishers Limited. 
[4] Alexander, J. (1999). Police Psychological Burnout and Trauma. Psychological Aftermath Journal  of Civilian Combat.12 (3), 54 – 64.
[5] Anshel, M. H. (2000). A Conceptual Model and Implications for Coping with Stressful Events in Police Work. Journal of Criminal Justice and Behaviour. (27) 3, 375 – 400.
[6] Archontakil, A., Lemis, J., & Bates, K. (2012). Veersrils of Records Online: Personality and Individual Differences. Journal of Personality. (2) 81, 223-244.
[7] Bastemur, Y. (2006). The Role of Factor Analysis in the Development and Evaluation of    Personality Scales. Unpublished Master Thesis. The Erciyes University, Social Sciences  Institute, Kayseri, Turkey. 
[8] Christopher, A. L. (2014). Work-Family Conflict, Psychological Well-Being, Satisfaction and Social Support: a Longitudinal Study in New Zealand. Journal of Equal Opportunities International 23 (4), 26 – 56.
[9] Christopher, J. B. (2015). Effect of Job Stress on Psychological Well-being among Police Officers in Plateau Metropolis. Jos: Cholom Printers.
[10] Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Bryne. G.  (2003). The Relationship of Emotional Exhaustion to Work Attitudes, Job Performance, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (1), 160 – 169.
[11] Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco  Publishers .
[12] Diener, E. (1997). Introduction of Special Section on the Structure of Emotion. USA: Journal of Personality and Psychology 76(2) 803 – 804
[13] Diener, E., Sandvik, E., Pavot, W., & Fujita, F. (1992). Extraversion and Subjective Well-Being in a U.S. National Probability Sample. Journal of Research in Personality, 26, 205-215.
[14] Diener, E., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Very Happy People. Psychological Science. Journal of Research in Personality 13 (1), 81-84.
[15] Fleeson, W., Malanos, A., & Achille, N. (2002). An Intra-Individual Process Approach to the Relationship between Extraversion and Positive Affect: Is Acting Extraverted as ‘Good’ as being Extraverted? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1409-1422.
[16] Frone, M. R., Russell, M. & Cooper, M. L. (2000). Age and Psychological Well-being : A Focus Group Survey Study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 234-255.
[17] Fry, L. W. & Greenfeld, S. (1980). An Examination of Attitudinal Differences Between Policewomen and Policemen Department of Management. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(1), 123-126.
[18] Gershon, R.  (2002). Work Stress in Aging Police Officers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 44(2), 160.
[19] Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L.,& Keyes, C. L. (2002). Well-being in the Workplace and its Relationship to Business Outcomes: A Review of the Gall up Studies. In C. L. Keyes, & J. 
[20] Haidt (Eds), Flourish: The Positive Person and the Good Life (205 – 224). Washington D.C: American Psychological Association. 
[21] Hennig, D., & Jardim, H. (1976), The Effect of Law Enforcement Stress on Organizational  Commitment. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management,    28(2), 321-336. 
[22] Joseph, A. (2015). Exposure to Duty – Related Incident Stressors in Urban Fire Fighters and Paramedics. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1 (4), 821 – 828.
[23] Karen, D., Lincoln, A., Robert, C.,& Colinks, J. (2011) Discrimination of Mental Health Among Africa American. USA: Joseph Tailor Publishers.
[24] Liberman A., Best S., Metzler T., Fagan J., Weiss D., & Marmar, C. (2002). Routine Occupational Stress and Psychological Distress in Police. Policing: An International   Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 25(2), 421-439.
[25] Mohren, D. C (2003). Common Infections and the Role of Burnout in a Dutch Working Population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55(3), 201 – 208.
[26] Nigeria Police Force, (2016). Department of Finance and Administration. State Headquarters, Makurdi.
[27] Olabisi, A. (2016). The Combination Feeling and Good Functioning. Akure:  FUTA press. 
[28] Pamson, A.,& John, D. (2013). Predictors of Nigerian Employee Psychological Well-being. Jos: Katako Printing Press.
[29] Paton, D., & Violanti, J. M. (1999). Long – Term Exposure to Stress and Trauma: Addiction and  Separation issues in Police officers. In G.M. Hubermann (Ed), Looking Back and   Moving Forward: 50 Years of New Zealand Psychology, (123-133). Wellington: New Zealand Psychological Society Press.
[30] Ryff, C. (1989). Ryff’s Scale of Psychological Well-Being: Explorations on the Meaning of   Psychological well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58,1069-1081
[31] Saidu. U. (2013) Occupational Stress and Psychological Well-being in Nigeria. Journal of Research in National Development. (4) 8, 1 -12.
[32] Solomon, B., Mark, D., & Johnson, K. (2015). The Relationship of Emotional Exhaustion to  Work Attitudes, Job Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behaviours. Journal of  Applied Psychology. 88(1), 160 – 169.  
[33] Standley, R., & Soule, B. (1974). Women in Male-Dominated Professions: Contrast in their Personal and Vocational Histories. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 4, 245-258. 
[34] Terborg, J, R. (1977). Women in Management: A Research Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 647-664.
[35] Ursine, H. & Erisksen, H.R. (2004). The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress: Psychoneurotic-Doctrinology, Journal of Physiological Psychology 29(5), 567 – 592
[36] Yamani, T. (1967). Statistics: An introductory Analysis, 2nd ED. New-York: Hamper and Raw  Publishers.
[37] Young, K. (2012). Supervising Police Personnel. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.  Yonkers, N. Y. (2001). Workplace Stress Scale. USA: Marlin Company Publishers