Effect of Moisture Content on Strength Properties of Okra Pod (Cv Kirenf) Necessary for Machine Design

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering
© 2018 by SSRG - IJME Journal
Volume 5 Issue 3
Year of Publication : 2018
Authors : Oghenerukevwe Prosper and Mr.Hilary Uguru
How to Cite?

Oghenerukevwe Prosper and Mr.Hilary Uguru, "Effect of Moisture Content on Strength Properties of Okra Pod (Cv Kirenf) Necessary for Machine Design," SSRG International Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 5,  no. 3, pp. 6-11, 2018. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/23488360/IJME-V5I3P102


In this study, compression tests were carried out on okra pods (cv Kirenf)to investigate moisture content's effect on seven mechanical parameters (failure force, failure energy, failure strain, maximum compressive force, rupture force, rupture energy, and deformation at the point of rupture). The tests were carried out at a deformation rate of 25 mm/min and five moisture content levels of 37.04, 44.20, 50.18, 56.19, and 61.06% (w.b), using the Testometric Universal Testing Machine (Testometric model, series 500-532). The results show that moisture content had significant (P≤ 0.05) effects on all the measured mechanical parameters. Failure force, failure energy, maximum compressive force, rupture force, and rupture energy decreased while failure strain and deformation at rupture increased with moisture content increases. Force and energy required to initiate the okra pod failure decreased by 58.52 and 61.57%, respectively; the maximum compressive force decreased by 61.47%; while force and energy and deformation required to initiate the okra pod rupture decreased by 61.37and 66.37%, respectively; whereas, failure strain and deformation at rupture increased by 28.72 and 40.57% respectively. The results provide useful data to be used by engineers in the design and development of suitable okra pod thresher and slicer.


Moisture content, okra pod, compressive force, mechanical properties


[1] O.J. Oyelade, B.I.O. Ade-Omowaye, V.F. Adeomi. "Influence of variety on protein, fat contents, and some physical characteristics of okra seeds." Journal of Food Engineering. 57, 111-114. 2003.
[2] E.A. Ajav, and BA. Adejumo. "Performance Evaluation of an Okra Thresher." Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript PM 04 006 Vol. VII. 2005.
[3] L. A. Bryant, J.R. Montecalvo, K.S. Morey, and B. Loy. Processing, Functional and Nutritional Properties of Okra Seed Products. Journal of Food Science 53-(3): 810-816. 1988.
[4] S.P. Reddy and A.C. Reddy. Tensile and flexural strength of okra Fiber-reinforced polymer composites. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research. 491-495.2016.
[5] F.W. Martin and R. Ruberte, R. Milling and use of okra seed meal at the household level. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 63:1-7. 1979.
[6] DVS.Chauhan. Vegetable Production in India. 3rd ed. Ram Prasad and Sons. Agra. 1972.
[7] NN. Mohsenin. "Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials." Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York pp 8-11, Books Ltd London 487 – 492. 1986.
[8] YS. Kang, C.K. Spillman, J.L. Steele, and DS. Chung. Mechanical Properties of Wheat. "Transactions of the ASAE," 38(2), 573-578. 1995.
[9] NA. Aviara, M.I. Gwandzang, and M.A. Haque. "Physical properties of guna seeds." Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 73: 105-111. 1999.
[10] KK. Singh and TK. Goswami. "Mechanical properties of cumin seed (CuminumcyminumLinn.) under compressive loading", Journal of Food Engineering, 36: 311-321.1998.
[11] G.C. Braga, S.M. Couto, T. Hara, and C.T. Neto. "Mechanical behavior of macadamia nut under compression loading."Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 72: 239-245. 1999.
[12] A.M. Olaniyanand K. Oje. "Some aspect of the mechanical properties of the shea nut." Biosystem Engineering., 81: 413-420. 2002.
[13] A.O. Akani, C.N. Ohanweand I.O. Omoniyi. "Determination of optimum impact for decortication of Bambara groundnut." Proceedings of the Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers, 22: 87 – 89. 2000.
[14] K. Ekinci, D. Yilmaz, and C. Ertekin. Effects of moisture content and compression positions on mechanical properties of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua
L.). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(10): 1015-1021. 2010
[15] MR Becwar, NS. Msnsour and G.W. Varseveld. "Microwave drying: A rapid method for determining sweet corn moisture." Hort Science, 12(b): 562-563. 1977.
[16] S.N. Asoegwu. "Some physical properties and cracking energy of conophor nuts at different moisture content." International Agrophysics, 9,131-142. 1995.
[17] F. Oluwole, N. Aviara, and M. Haque. "Effect of moisture content and impact energy on the crackability of the shea nut."Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, Manuscript FP 07 002 Vol. IX., www.cigrjournal.org. 2007.
[18] Steffe, J. F., 1996. Rheological Methods in Food Process Engineering. (Second Edition). Freeman Press, USA. Pp 72-90.
[19] U.G.N. Anazodo. "Elastic and viscoelastic properties of agricultural products in relation to harvesting and postharvest processes." Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 13: 59–65, 70. 1982.
[20] E. Mamman, N.A. Aviara and O.A. Ogunjirin. "Effects of heating temperature and time on some mechanical properties of Balanitesaegyptiaca nut."Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 14(2): 77-85. 2012.
[21] M. Konak, K. Carman andC. Aydin C. "Physical properties of chickpea seeds."Biosystem Engineering, 82: 73–78. 2002.
[22] A.W. Cecil and K.C. Watts. "Properties of cowpea (var. Minica Beans)." Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 68:159 – 167. 1997
[23] A. Zdunek, J. Cybulska, D. Konopacka, and K. Rutkowski. "New contact acoustic emission detector for texture evaluation of apples." Journal of Food Engineering, 99(1): 83-91. 2010.
[24] A.M. Kermani, A. M. "Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hazelnut." The 5th National Conference on Agricultural Machinery Engineering and Mechanization, Mashhad, Iran: Ferdowsi University. 2008
[25] S.H Saiedirad, A. Tabatabaeefar, A. Borghei, M. Mirsalehi, F. Badii, M. GhasemiVarnamkhasti. "Effects of moisture content, seed size, loading rate and seed orientation on force and energy required for fracturing cumin seed (Cuminumcyminum Linn.)" under quasi-static loading. Journal of Food Engineering, 86 565–572. 2008.
[26] H. Bagherpour, S. Minaei. and MH "Khoshtaghaza Selected physicomechanical properties of lentil seed." Int. Agrophysics. 24:81-84. 2010.
[27] Vursavus, K., and Ozguven, F. (2005). "Fracture resistance of pine nut to compressive loading."Biosystem Engineering. 90(2):185-191.
[28] E. Altuntas, and. Yıldız. "Effect of Moisture Content on Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Faba Bean (Viciafaba L.) Grains." Journal of Food Engineering 78, 174-183. 2007.
[29] M.S. Teotia, P. Ramakrishna, SK. Berry and S. Kaur. Some engineering properties of pumpkin seeds. Journal of Food Engineering, 9(l), 153- 162. 1989.
[30] H. Fathollahzadehand A. Rajabipour. "Some mechanical properties of barberry." International Agrophysics journal 22, 299-302. 2008.
[31] S. Persson. "Mechanics of cutting plant material" l. Michigan: ASAE Publications., 1987.
[32] Rajasekar S, Arvind B, Meyyappan N, "Drying of Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) and Black-eyed Peas (Vigna unguiculata)" SSRG International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research 4.1 (2017): 14-21.